Advice for finders of Treasure on archaeological projects

Archaeologists in a trench excavating the site at Hitcham 2

Along with members of the public, archaeologists are also required by law to report items of potential treasure to the Coroner. This guide has been written to advise archaeological teams on the different stages within the treasure process.

If you are unfamiliar with the process of notifying the Coroner of your discovery, please contact your local Finds Liaison Officer (FLO) or the Treasure Team at the British Museum for assistance. Otherwise, after notifying the Coroner of the find of potential Treasure, please send the following to your local Finds Liaison Officer (FLO) and to the Treasure Team (

  1. Completed treasure receipt. Please note that the finder is the organisation or group and not the individual member of the project that found the object. Please send this as soon as possible to enable a Treasure number to be issued for the find.
  2. Colour photographs supplied as .jpgs. Front and back images of objects are good. We don't need images of coins where a catalogue will suffice. Where there is a group of objects found in association, please use your common sense, individual photographs of gold and silver objects of note are essential but in many cases group shots can be taken, for example, of beads, metalworking waste or pottery sherds found in association.
  3. The name of the designated site repository.
  4. A named point of contact within the archaeological team, their email and phone number.
  5. A short report for the coroner which will then be checked by the relevant curator at the British Museum. We appreciate that report-writing will take time. The report should be headed with the Treasure case number, item description and findspot followed by the following sections:
    1. Circumstances of discovery: date of project and brief description of context
    2. Description of the object/s focusing on why they are potential treasure (metal content/date) and any points of note. Where applicable, objects found in association must also be briefly detailed. For hoards of coins, a brief description of the group followed by a catalogue will suffice.
    3. A statement of whether, and under what criteria, the case qualifies as Treasure under the terms of the Treasure Act 1996.

If there is difficulty writing a report, for example, your organisation does not have a member of staff with the necessary knowledge or expertise to accurately identify the finds, you may need to engage the services of an expert (at your cost) to draft the report. The draft report will be passed by the relevant curator at the British Museum for scrutiny.

With regards to the payment of rewards the Treasure Act says states that:

"..rewards will not be payable when the find is made by an archaeologist or anyone engaged on an archaeological excavation or investigation."

This then applies to all archaeologists and volunteers working on any project. For clarity, we advise Project Directors to ask all participants to sign a statement waiving their right to a reward as a member of the project team.

Landowners are, however, entitled to claim their portion of the reward for treasure items, which is 50% of their market value. Landowners can waive this right and effectively donate the object/coins to the site archive. We endeavour to maintain the integrity of the site archive and therefore if the landowner does decide to claim, the designated site repository will be expected to acquire the object through the Treasure process by paying 50% of its market value.

Upon discovery of potential treasure we would therefore like you to put the question to the landowner: 'Do you wish to waive or claim your right to a treasure reward?'

If the landowner waives their share we will write to the Coroner to instruct that the Crown's interest in the object has been disclaimed to the site archive. The landowner will receive a certificate of thanks from the Minister for Culture, Communications and Creative Industries.

If the landowner wishes to claim we will write to the Coroner to request that an inquest is held, and once the object is officially declared Treasure, we will begin the valuation process. We will require a point of contact at the site repository who is authorised to agree the recommended valuation of the Treasure Valuation Committee and who can pay the subsequent invoice for the case. The landowner will be able to withdraw their interest in claiming a reward at any stage.

Where a landowner and repository are effectively one and the same, for example, the site is owned by a County Council which also manages the museum designated as the site repository it is nonsensical for the landowner to claim and in such cases they should be urged to waive their right to a reward.

It is preferable for the archaeologists to initiate the conversation regarding the reward, given existing contact with the landowner. The treasure team would advise you to use a proforma letter outlining the different options and the following paragraph can be used in cases where landowners are waiving.

For example:

"I, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, as landowners in Treasure case 200x Txxx, confirm that I am happy to waive my right to a financial reward for the find, namely a xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx from xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. I understand that this means the find will be disclaimed to remain with the main site archive, and thus be transferred, without a specific purchase, into the care and ownership of xxxxxxxxxxx Museum."

We are happy to take over communication with the landowner once a certain time has elapsed, or if you are finding it difficult to gain a decision from the landowner. Please note that members of the treasure department and the regional FLOs are not able to discuss the possible value of items of treasure. We can, however, refer interested parties to comparanda in the Treasure Annual Reports published through our website.

If a landowner feels unable to decide, without knowing possible value, we suggest taking the case through to inquest and valuation as outlined above.

Paragraph 66 of the Treasure Act 1996 Code of Practice stipulates that the 'valuation will be as at the time of the finding of the object and in the condition in which it was found.' It is therefore advised that the only conservation performed on items of potential Treasure is done to ensure that the object is stabilised (not subject to further deterioration) or performed in order to aide in the identification of the find.

It is expected that items of potential treasure will be stabilised and stored by such means as has been planned for in the archaeological project. In the case of coins that require cleaning for identification, it is expected that this process will be carried out as part of the overall excavation report.

As a summary piece of advice, we hope that it has been made clear that it is wise for implications of the Treasure Act 1996 to be considered and factored into all archaeological project proposals from the start.