Inside the Mint or Officina

Many of the mints operated several different workshops (or officina) which can be identified from the Latin and Greek letters added to the mint name. PTR = Prima/first workshop of TRier mint. The following table shows how the workshops are numbered:

Greek Latin English
A / α Alpha
P prima 1
B / β Beta S secunda 2
Γ / γ gamma T tertia 3
Δ / δ delta Q quarta 4
Ε/ ε epsilon
-
5
Σ/ σ sigma
-
6
Ζ / ζ zeta
-
7
Η / η eta
-
8
Θ / θ theta
-
9
Ι / ι iota
-
10
ΙΑ iota alpha
-
11
ΙΒ iota beta
-
12

The following letters were sometimes added to the mint abbreviation:

Initials
Latin
Translation
SM Sacra Moneta The Sacred Mint
Comment: Hence SMH is the Sacred mint of Heraclea.
PS Pusulatum Pure Silver
OB Obryziacum Pure Gold
Comment: These appear on late Roman silver and gold respectively.
COM Comitatus The Imperial Court
Comment: Normally appears with OB meaning pure gold of the Imperial Court (COMOB). This form appears on Late Roman gold.


The following symbols or issue marks also appear:

Branch
Wreath
Crescent
Branch mintmark
Wreath mintmark
Crescent mintmark
Dot
Star ★
Chi-Rho ☧
Dot - mintmark
Star mintmark
Chi-Rho mintmark
'Club' - ♣
'Spade' - ♠
Club - mintmark
Spade - mintmark