Mintmarks of the Fourth Century AD

The following notes are intended to help with the identification of Roman base-metal nummi. This table does not attempt to cover gold and silver mint-marks. They will be covered separately. Information provided:

  1. Name of the Mint
  2. When the mint was operational
  3. The common core letter abbreviations for the mint
  4. The number of officinae / workshops operating at the mint (the maximum number are given, although many mints did not operate this number of workshops all of the time). The code letters for the officinae - Latin, Greek and Numeral versions - are listed below. They are normally affixes.

Workshop codes

  • P = Prima (1)
  • S = Secunda (2)
  • T = Tertia (3)
  • Q = Quarta (4)
  • A = Alpha (1)
  • B = Beta (2)
  • Γ = Gamma (3)
  • Δ = Delta (4)
  • E = Epsilon (5)
  • S = Sigma (6)
  • Z = Zeta (7)
  • H = Eta (8)
  • Θ = Theta (9)
  • I = Iota (10)
  • IA = Iota Alpha (11)
  • [OF] I = 1
  • [OF] II = 2
  • [OF] III = 3

5. Other letters that appear with the mintmarks at times. They are normally prefixes:

Other Letters

SM = Sacra Moneta = Sacred Money/Mint M = Moneta = Money/Mint P = Pecunia (when not used as P/Prima for officina) = Money Note that on silver and gold, the following letters could appear: PS = Pulsatum (pure silver) OB = Obryziacum (pure gold)

6. A listing (not exhaustive) of the mintmarks as marked in the exergue of coins. Field letters and symbols are not provided. When you have identified the mint, you can pursue the precise coin in Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) and Late Roman Bronze Coinage (LRBC).

Some examples:

  • PLON = Prima Londinium or Pecunia Londinium = first workshop of London, or money of London
  • STR = Secunda Trier = second workshop of Trier
  • SMTR = Sacra Moneta Trier = sacred money/mint of Trier
  • SMRT = Sacra Moneta Roma Tertia = sacred money/mint of Rome, third workshop
  • MOSTP = Moneta Ostia Prima = money/mint of Ostia, first workshop
  • ALEB = Alexandria Beta = second workshop of Alexandria

Note on writing mintmarks:

If a coin has a figure standing on the reverse and letters shown thus:

T F

PTR we write it as T F//PTR

T

PTR we write it as T -//PTR

F

PTR we write it as - F//PTR

PTR we write it as -//PTR

T F we write it as T F//-

S

K A

SISCP we write it as S -/K A//SISCP

For a letter in the middle of the field, ie between two figures:

A

TRP A//TRP

Table of mints and mintmarks, starting in the North-West and working South and Eastwards

Mint Name Dates Operational Core letters Officinae / Workshops (note that number varied in mints over time) Other letters used Common Marks in exergue (except for Trier marks, only first officina example provided) Notes

London

294-325 (383-8 - gold only)

L, LN, LON

1: P

M

No mark; L, ML, MLL, MSL, MLN, PLN, PLON, PLONÈ

Letters in the fields on various issues

Amiens

350-3

AMB

1: (not marked)

AMB, AMB(branch), •AMB(branch), AMB*, •AMB*, AMBÈ, AMBÈ•, *AMBÈ, *AMBÈ•, AMB•, È•AMB(wreath)

(Magnentius, Decentius & Constantius II)

Trier

294-395 (-c. 430)

TR

2: P, S; I, II; A, B

SM

TR, A/BTR, I-IITR, •A/BTR, P/STR, •P/STR, P/STR•, •P/STR•, P/STRÈ, •P/STRÈ, P/STRÈ●, P/STRE, TRP/S, TR•P/S, TRP/S•, TRP/S*, TRP/S•, TRP/S(branch), •TRP(branch), TRPÈ, •TRP/S•, SMTR, SMTRP

Letters and symbols in the fields on various issues

Lyon

294-395 (- c. 423)

LG, LVG, LVGD

2: P, S; OF I & II

LG, LVG, P/SLG, P/SLGÈ, LVGP, *P/SLG, •P/SLG, *PLG•, PLG*, FPLG, RPLG, RPLG• ÈPLG, LPLG, C, PLG, MPLG, PLGÈ, LVGDOFFP, (branch)PLVGD, PLVG, PLVG*, LVG•P, LVGP*, LVGP(+letter), LVGP•

Letters in the fields on various issues

Arles, also known as Constantia (328-40 & 353-395)

313-395 (- c. 425)

ARL, CON, CONST

Max 4: P, S, T, Q; OF I, II & III

PARL, P*/ÈA, P*AR, ARLP, PARL•, PCONST, CON, PCON, CON*, *CON, LPAR

Letters in the fields on various issues

Ticinum (Pavia)

294-c.327

T

P, S, T

PT, PÈT, P(branch)T

Mint then moved to Constantinople

Rome

296-491

R, RM, ROM

Max 6: P, S, T, Q, E, S

SM

RP, RBP, RFP, R*P, R(wreath)P, R(leaf)P, RÈP, R(branch)P, RP(branch), VRB.ROM.P, ROMA.P, SMRP, RPRIMA, R•PRIMA, SM(leaf)RP, R•P, SMROM

Ostia

308-13

OST

4: A, B, Γ, Δ; P, S, T, Q

P, M

MOSTA, MOSTP

POSTA on silver; the mint of Ostia then moved to Arles in 313

Carthage

296-307; 308-311

K, KART

4: P, S, T, Q; A, B, Γ, Δ

P

PKP; PKA; KART in leg with A, B, Γ, Δ

In 307, part of the mint probably moved to set up mint at Ostia

Aquileia

294-402 (- c. 423)

AQ

3: P, S, Γ

SM

AQP, •AQP; AQP(branch), AQP•, AQP*, (branch)AQP (branch), *AQP, SMAQP, È●SMAQP, È *SMAQP, *SMAQP, •SMAQP, •SMAQP•, SMAQ,

Siscia

294-423

SIS, SISC

5: A, B, Γ, Δ, E

SM

SIS, •SIS•, SMSISC, ASIS, ASIS*, ASIS•, •ASIS•, ASISÈ*, ASISÈÈ, ASIS(thunderbolt), ASIS(branch), ASIS(wreath), ASIS('cogwheel', ASISR, ASISÈ, ASISC(+letter), ASISC, ASISV, ASISR, •ASISC, ÈSISC, DSISC, È*ASISC, ASISC•, SM

For the FEL TEMP REPARATIO fallen horseman types and the Valentinianic SECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE & GLORIA ROMANORVM types, there are numerous letters in fields

Serdica

c. 303-8; 313-4

SD, SER

5: A, B, Γ, Δ, E

SM

SM•SD•, •SM•SD•, •SM•SDA•

Sirmium

320-6, 351-64, 393-5

SM, SIR, SIRM

1: (not marked)

SIRM, •SIRM•, *SIRM, ASIRM, *ASIRM, •ASIRM•, ASIRM*, ASIRM(wreath), *ASIRM(branch)

Thessalonica

298-474

TS, TES, THS, THES

5: A, B, Γ, Δ, E

SM

TSA, •TSA•, TS, •TS•, •SM•TS•, •TS•A, TSAVI, TSAVII, SMTSA, SMTS, TESA, TSA*, •TSA•, *TESA, (branch)TESA,

(branch) TESA•, (branch)TESA(branch), •TESA•, TES, •TES, TES•, •TES•, THES, THS

Large number of field letters on Valentinianic issues.

Heraclea

294-474

H, HT,

HERACL,

HERAC

5: A, B, Γ, Δ, E

SM, M

HA, HTA, •HTA•, H•T•A, SMHT, MHTA, •MHTA, MHTA•, •MHTA•, SMHA, SMHA•, •SMHA•, •SMHA, ••SMHA, SMHA*, HERACLA, HERACL•A, •HERACL•A, HERACA, HERAC•A, *SMHA, SMH

Constantinople

326-

CON, CONS, CN

Max 11: A, B, Γ, Δ, (E, S, Z, H, Θ, I, IA)

CONS, CONSA, CONS*, CONSA•, •CONSA•, CONSA*, CONSA(branch), •CONSPA(branch), (branch)CONSPA (branch), (branch)CONSA (branch), CONSPA, CONA, CONS, CN

Nicomedia

294-

N, NIK, NIC

A, B, Γ, Δ, E

SM, M

SMN, SMNA, MNA, NA, •SMNA, NIKA*, (branch)NIKA(branch, *SMNA, +SMNA, NIC, NICO

Cyzicus

294-

K, CVZICEN,

CVZIC, CVZ

Max 8: A, B, Γ, Δ, E, S, Z, H

SM

KV, KA, MKA, MKV, MKVA, SMK, SKM, SMKA, SMKA•, •SMKA•, •SMKA, *SMKA, CVZICENA, CVZICA, CVZA, CVZ

Antioch

294-

ANT, AN

Max 7: A, B, Γ, Δ, E, S, Z

SM

ANT, *ANTH, ANT•H, *ANT•, *ANTH*, ÈSMA (reverse Σ)*, SMANT, SMANTA, •SMANTA, SMANA, ANA, ANTA, *ANTA,

Alexandria

294-

ALE

Max 8: A, B, Γ, Δ, E, S, Z, H

SM

ALE, SMAL, SMALA, SMAL•A, ALEA, (branch)ALEA (branch),