Common Latin titles explained

The following table provides a list of some of the most common titles that appear on Roman coins together with an explanation of their meaning.

Latin English Translation Description
AVG(ustus)/AVGVSTVS - The adopted personal name of the first emperor, later adopted as a title by his successors.
C(aesar)/CAES(ar)/CAESAR - The family name of Julius Caesar and the first dynasty of emperors the Julio-Claudians (Augustus to Nero). From AD 138 it became the title of the junior emperor(s) / Imperial heir(s).
CENS(or) - A political office of the Roman Republic held by some emperors
DIVVS/DIVO (masculine)
DIVA (feminine)
Divine, deified. This is indicative that the coin was struck after the death of the named emperor or empress. (DIVVS ANTONINVS, DIVA FAVSTINA, DIVO CLAVDIO etc)
D(ominus) N(oster) Our Lord Gradually replaced Imperator as the main title of the emperor during the 4 th century AD (D N VALENS P F AVG, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG etc)
NOB CAES/NOB C/N C (Nobilissimus Caesar) Most Noble Caesar Title of junior emperor during 4 th century AD
P(ater) P(atriae) Father of his Country Honorific title first used by Augustus and by some subsequent emperors
PER(petuus)/PERP(etuus) Continuous, perpetual Qualifying another title
P(ius) F(elix) Dutiful and fortunate Part of the standard Imperial titles from the 2 nd century AD
P M/PON MAX/PONT MAX Pontifex Maximus High Priest The Pontifices were the most senior of the Priesthoods of Ancient Rome
S(enatus) C(onsulto) By decree of the Senate Appears on the reverse of all early imperial bronzes struck before the mid 3 rd century AD
S(enatus) P(opulus)Q(ue) R(omanus) The Roman Senate and People A reference to the Roman State - its main political body and its citizens.