News from the Scheme

British Museum reports large increase in archaeological finds found by the public

Published: 9 years ago Author:

Today Culture Minister, Ed Vaizey, will launch the Portable Antiquities & Treasure Annual Report 2008 (9.4 MB), to coincide with an announcement by the British Museum that there has been a massive increase in archaeological finds found by the public.

In 2010, 90,146 archaeological objects were recorded through the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS), a 36% increase on 2009, and 859 Treasure cases, up 10%; the British Museum manages the PAS, and also administers the Treasure Act 1996.

This increase in finds is mostly due to a rebuild of the PAS finds database in early 2010, which has made it easier to use for recorders and the public, and interns employed to record finds, generously funded by the Headley Trust and Institute for Archaeologists. Finds recorded by the PAS, include prehistoric flints, Roman brooches, Anglo-Saxon strap-ends, medieval coins, and some post-medieval false teeth...

Neil MacGregor, director of the British Museum, said:

The high number of finds recorded is testament to the tremendous success of the Portable Antiquities Scheme and the Treasure Act, and I am delighted that we have been able to agree new contracts with all the partners in the Scheme, so the current posts will continue. The finds reported though the Portable Antiquities Scheme and Treasure are changing our understanding of the past, helping archaeologists learn where people lived and died, and how these finds were used. But what is truly exciting, is that these finds are being made by the public not (in most cases) by archaeologists, transforming the archaeological map of Britain.

Ed Vaizey said:

I am a great fan of the Portable Antiquities Scheme. It has a tremendous ability to engage all sorts of people with an interest in archaeology, including those who find objects and those who want to learn about them. I'd like to pay tribute to everyone involved with the scheme, especially its finds liaison officers and the many people who have promptly and properly reported their finds. Thanks to them we can all experience something of the thrill of discovery and learn more about the past.

The Minister is also pleased to announce that Professor Lord Colin Renfrew of Kaimsthorn has been appointed as successor to Professor Norman Palmer as Chairman of the Treasure Valuation Committee.

For further information or images please contact Hannah Boulton or Esme Wilson on 020 7323 8522 / 8394 or

Finds on Display:

The hoard of Iron Age gold coinsA Late Iron Age coin hoard of 840 gold staters from Wickham Market area, Suffolk (Report: No. 471). Date: AD c. 15-c. 20. Found on and after March 2008 by the finder; more coins were found during an archaeological excavation of the findspot by Suffolk County Council's Archaeology Service in October 2008. The hoard is highly significant as it is the largest hoard of Iron Age gold coins discovered since the Whaddon Chase Hoard (Buckinghamshire) in 1849; unfortunately this find was partially dispersed at the time of discovery, making it difficult to estimate the number of coins found. Colchester & Ipswich Museums hope to acquire.

A roman knife handleA Roman knife handle from Syston, Lincolnshire (Report: No. 114/ LIN-536F87). Date: AD c.43-c.410. Found by David Barker. This object depicts an erotic scene involving two males and a female, and a decapitated head! Only a handful of erotic knife handles are known from Britain, and this is handle is of a new type. The significance of the decapitated head is unclear. Acquired by The Collection, Lincoln.

A group of ringsA group of Early Medieval gold objects from West Yorkshire (Report: No. 182). Date: c.600-c1100. Found on 14 and 15 September 2008. The group comprises five gold objects, including three finger-rings, a gold ingot and a fragment of a gold cloisonné brooch. The largest finger-ring, weighing 30 grams, is fitted with a central garnet and a twisted gold hoop. Another ring features four unique niello panels, some with zoomorphic decoration. This is a very special group, testifying to the high level of workmanship among Early Medieval goldsmiths. Leeds Museums & Galleries hope to acquire.

Medieval gold lockeyA Medieval gold locket from Rolleston, Nottinghamshire (Report: No. 354/ DENO-E69756). Date: c.1450-c.1500. Found by Darren Hoyle on 7 August 2008. This object has the inscription cauns [sauns] repentir (without regret), which may have been an amatory phrase. This padlock is closely comparable to one from the Fishpool Hoard (Nottinghamshire), found in 1966, and on display in the British Museum. The Fishpool Hoard is thought to have been deposited in May 1464, during the Wars of the Roses. It is possible the Rolleston and Fishpool lockets were made by the same workshop. The Rolleston locket has also been acquired by the British Museum.

Notes to Editors:

  1. The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) is a voluntary scheme (managed by the British Museum) to record archaeological objects (not necessarily Treasure) found by members of the public in England and Wales. Every year many thousands of objects are discovered, many of these by metal-detector users, but also by people whilst out walking, gardening or going about their daily work. Such discoveries offer an important source for understanding our past. More information can be found on
  2. All finders of gold and silver objects, groups of coins from the same find, over 300 years old, have a legal obligation to report such items under the Treasure Act 1996. Prehistoric base-metal assemblages found after 1 January 2003 also qualify as Treasure. Potential Treasure finds must be reported by law to the local coroner, which is normally done through the finders' local PAS Finds Liaison Officer. If declared Treasure, they may be acquired by a museum at their full market value (normally split 50/50 between finder and landowner), valued by the Treasure Valuation Committee, which is an independent committee of expert. The Treasure Process is administered by the British Museum. More information is available on or
  3. This is the last combined Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report. The Treasure Act 1996 requires a report to published on the operation of the Treasure Act, and also it is hoped a short report will be published on the work of the PAS, however all PAS and Treasure finds are reported on the PAS database -
Lat: 51.519 Long: -0.1265

Day of Archaeology 2011

Published: 9 years ago Author:

QR code for day of archaeology websiteThe Portable Antiquities Scheme is proud to be supporting "The Day of Archaeology 2011", a social media based project that will allow archaeologists working all over the world to document what they do on one day, July 29th 2011. This date coincides with the "Festival of British Archaeology", which runs from 16th - 31st July 2011 and is one of the hundreds of events being held to celebrate archaeology in the UK and beyond.

Archaeologists taking part in the project will document their day through photography, video, facebook activity, twitter commentary and written blog posts. These will then be collated in realtime on the project's dedicated website -, which will then provide a glimpse into a day in the life of people working in archaeology, from archaeological excavations to laboratories, universities, community archaeology groups, education services, museums and offices. This project is open to everyone working or volunteering in any aspect of archaeology from anywhere in the world - and even those who have defected! Currently, over 150 people and organisations have signed up. You could be next, so give archaeology a voice!

This innovative idea, follows on from the very successful "Day of Digital Humanities" and was dreamt up by Matthew Law and Lorna Richardson, two PhD researchers at Cardiff and UCL respectively. The project will be fully archived by the Scheme and if deemed successful, will be repeated next year.

If you would like to get involved, email the project team at and you will receive further details and account details for the website nearer the date. If you have no experience of using blog software, there's information on how to use the systems provided on the site. If you have experience in graphic design, perhaps you could consider entering the design a logo competition, rules and more information can be found on the project's website. 

The project is supported by:

The hashtag for this project is #dayofarch and can be used on tweets, blog posts and flickr photos to aggregate externally. Please consider using this tag if you refer to this project.

CBA festival of archaeology banner

Lat: 51.5002 Long: -0.126236

God, for Harry, England and St George

Published: 9 years ago Author:

The St George and the Dragon pilgrim badgeThe immortal words attributed to Henry V (1413-22) at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), in Henry V (Act III) by William Shakespeare. St George became popular in England following the Crusades: a vision of him riding with horsemen in white appeared at the Battle of Antioch (1098). By the end of the C14th the feast of St George (23 April) - also the date of Shakespeare's death - was observed as a national holiday, and after Henry V's victory over the French at Agincourt, St George's Day became a major festival, alongside Easter and Christmas. By then George had largely displaced St Edward the Confessor and St Edmund as England's patron saint.

The cult of St George became associated with Windsor, where the Chapel of St George was the ceremonial centre for the Order of the Garter, established by Edward III (1327-77) in 1348. Relics of St George at Windsor included his heart - a gift from the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1416, who was a Knight of the Garter - various bones, and later a head (encased in gold): one of at least six heads' of St George known!

The icon of St George in the British Museum collectionSt George's shrine attracted pilgrims, and hence a trade in pilgrims' badges, especially during the C14th and C15th. Several such badges have been found, some silver, copper-alloy or pewter, but few as spectacular as a recent find from Cumbria (LANCUM-4501B2) which was found this month, and recorded with Stuart Noon (Lancashire & Cumbria FLO).

This badge is silver gilt. St George, who is shown bare-headed, but otherwise in full armour, has become detached from the dragon. He stands with his legs apart, his left hand lowered (in a protective stance) and his right hand is raised, holding the remnants of a lance. The dragon lies in submission, with is head slightly raised. Its limbs are shown, as is its curled tail and a single wing. It seem likely George would have stood above the dragon (as on lead-alloy pilgrims' badges of the period) and was originally attached to the dragon either by the (broken) lance running through the tail of the dragon or more likely holding the tail in the open hand, indicated by wear pattern on the left leg.

A small loop at the back of St George suggests the object was attached to cloth (or leather). As a rule most pilgrims' badges are decorated on one face, as only one surface is visible when worn, so this badge is unusual in being decorated on both sides. When compared to badges of other cults, a high proportion of those of St George are made of silver, suggesting higher status use and function beyond that typical of most pilgrim souvenirs.

There is reason to suppose that George was a historical figure. He is believed to have been a Christian of noble birth, from Lod (modern day Israel), during the late C3rd, who rose through the ranks of the Roman army under Diocletian. Following Diocletian's 'Edict against the Christians' (302) George was arrested, and ordered to renounce his faith. He refused, and was tortured before being beheaded at Nicomedia.

St George's crossIn contrast, the legend of 'George and the dragon'- which is celebrated on St George pilgrims' souvenirs - has no credible historical basis. In this tale a dragon was repeatedly bribed from its lair, so that inhabitants of the city of Silene (perhaps modern day Cyrene) could collect water from a spring nearby. First livestock was offered, and then (when no animals could be found) the people themselves drew lots. One day it is the city's princess who draws the short straw, only to be saved by George, who slays the dragon. Thereafter the people of Silene convert to Christianity.

George is not only the patron saint of England, but also Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, India, Iraq, Lithuania, Palestine, Portugal, Serbia and Russia, as well as many cities...

The British Museum has several examples of St George within the collection:

  • Pilgrim badge depicting St George and the dragon (P&E MLA 1913 6-19 38)
  • Edward Burne-Jones, St George fighting the Dragon, a pencil drawing (PD 1954-5-8-13)
  • Icon of St George ( M&ME 1986,6-3,1 and shown above in the text, copyright British Museum Trustees)

Happy St George's Day

Lat: 51.519 Long: -0.1265

The Hackney Hoard

Published: 9 years ago Author:

Coroner to rule on unique and historic treasure case

Ian Richardson holds a gold double eagleOn 18 April 2011 the Coroner for Inner North London will resume an inquest in relation to a hoard of American gold dollars (database ID: PAS-867115) found in Hackney in 2007. The hoard consists of 80 coins which were minted in the United States between 1854 and 1913. They are all $20 denominations of the type known as 'Double-Eagle' and the find is unprecedented in the United Kingdom since the Scheme began. The hoard was discovered in the back garden of a property in Hackney and reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme but in a unique twist to the story a likely descendent of the original owner of the coins has been found.

The coins are thought to have been buried in 1940 when Mr Martin Sulzbacher and his family were resident in the Hackney property. A German Jew who had fled persecution in Nazi Germany, Mr Sulzbacher was interned as an 'enemy alien refugee' first in Seaton, Devon. He was then sent to Canada on the ill-fated "Arandora Star" but the ship was torpedoed on the way. Rescued after many hours in the water, he was then sent to Australia on the "Dunera". At the end of 1941 he was sent to the Isle of Man and eventually released. His wife and four children were sent to the Women's Internment Camp in the Isle of Man.

A handful of double eaglesThe remaining members of the Sulzbacher family continued to live in the Hackney house. The gold coins had originally been kept in a safe in the City of London but after 1940 Mr Sulzbacher's brother took the precaution of transferring the coins from the city safe and burying them in the back garden. At the time the threat of invasion was at its height and the family feared the Germans would break open safe deposits as they had done in Amsterdam should the invasion be successful. His brother told a family friend what he had done and the friend had asked him to let him know the exact spot in the garden where the coins had been buried. He replied that since there were five family members who knew the spot there was no necessity to reveal the location of the coins. Unfortunately, on the 24th September 1940, the house received a direct hit in the Blitz and all the five members of the family were killed.

The coins and the kilner jar they were buried inOn his release Mr Sulzbacher went to the safe in the city and to his horror found that the safe was empty. The family friend then told him what had happened and so he arranged for the garden to be searched but without success, he was unable to locate the coins. However, the current case represents a second discovery of Martin Sulzbacher's savings. In 1952 as work commenced on a new building on the site of Mr Sulzbacher's house, a hoard of 82 $20 American gold coins dating to 1890 was discovered in a glass jar on the same site. The hoard was awarded to Mr Sulzbacher by the coroner at the time.

If the Coroner decides that Mr Sulzbacher has a superior claim to the current coin hoard they will not qualify as Treasure according to the terms of the Treasure Act 1996, on the grounds that in order for objects to be classed as such, their owner or his or her heirs or successors must be unknown. Mr Martin Sulzbacher passed away in 1981 but the coroner's office, the British Museum and the Museum of London have worked together to track down his son, Mr Max Sulzbacher who lives abroad, as do his siblings.

Mr Sulzbacher said

'I am surprised but delighted by the recent discovery, which has come to light almost 70 years after the coins were buried. I am very grateful to the finders for reporting the coins to the Portable Antiquities Scheme and the Museum of London, and to the member of the public who alerted the coroner to the 1950s discovery'.

Michael Lewis studies the case in the BM galleryMax Sulzbacher has generously agreed that the hoard can remain on public display at the British Museum (Room 41) for a further week, giving visitors a further opportunity to see the coins. He hopes to donate one coin to the local Hackney Museum and though not obliged to do so, he has agreed to give an ex-gratia payment to the finders in recognition of their contribution to the discovery. It is anticipated that the remainder of the coins will be sold.

This represents the first time since the Treasure Act came into force in 1997 that an original owner or direct descendent has lain successful claim to an item that would otherwise have been 'Treasure' and the property of the Crown.

Dr Roger Bland, head of the department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure at the British Museum, said

'The case of the Hackney gold coins is one of the most unique and compelling stories that we have been involved with. There is an incredibly human element to this story that is absent from many archaeological finds and we are pleased to see the coins reunited with their original owners after so many years. The finders are to be congratulated for acting responsibly and helping to add further vital information to the corpus of material about the Second World War, Jewish immigration, and the history of Hackney borough.'

Archaeologists from the British Museum and University College London have investigated the site to ensure that no further deposits remained.

For further information please contact Hannah Boulton on 020 7323 8522 or Olivia Rickman on 020 7323 8583 or /

Notes to editors:

The original inquest into the find took place on 11 October 2010 at St Pancras Coroner's Court. The purpose of the inquest was to determine whether the coins qualified as Treasure under the terms of the Treasure Act 1996. Because the coins are less than 300 years' old, in order to qualify as Treasure they needed to meet the following criteria:

  1. Be made of gold or silver
  2. Be deliberately concealed by the owner with a view to later recovery
  3. The owner, or his or her present heirs or successors, must be unknown

The coroner decided that the inquest would be concluded at a later date, in order to allow anyone with information regarding the original owner of the coins to come forward.

Subsequently, the coroner's office was approached by a member of the public who directed their attention to an historic article in The Times newspaper, dated 13 March 1952. This article referenced a Treasure Trove inquest concerning an almost identical group of gold coins found at the same property in Hackney in 1952. In that case, the coroner found that the coins did not constitute Treasure Trove, and handed them to a claimant by the name of Martin Sulzbacher, an earlier resident of the property.

Further research conducted by the coroner's office, the British Museum and the Museum of London has confirmed that Martin Sulzbacher, a German Jew, emigrated to London in the late 1930s and by 1940 owned and lived in the double fronted house in Hackney with his immediate and extended family.

In 1952, in advance of the construction of a new building on the site of Mr Sulzbacher's former residence, workmen discovered a jar containing 82 American gold 'double eagles' dating from the 19th century. They were reported to the coroner, Mr W B Purchase, who, after hearing Mr Sulzbacher's argument in support of his claim to the coins as part of his fortune, found the coins did not constitute Treasure Trove. Due to regulations in place at the time, Mr Sulzbacher was not allowed to keep the gold coins, but was given in exchange the current bullion rate by the Treasury in pounds sterling.

The QRcode for the recordThe current case of 80 gold double eagles almost certainly represents a separate discovery of Mr Sulzbacher's wealth. Martin Sulzbacher passed away in Haringey in 1981, but his immediate relations have come forward to claim the coins as his descendents.

The coins were found wrapped in greaseproof paper inside a glass jar buried in the earth by the residents of the property as they performed routine landscaping in their back garden.

More images can be downloaded from our flickr feed, if you have a question on these tweet us @findsorguk #hashtag #hackneygold All images and text, are, as always CC-BY-SA.

Lat: 51.5189 Long: -0.126384

Comments: There are already 1 comments

Scheme's website wins a Best of the Web award

Published: 9 years ago Author:

The Museums and the Web logo

The Scheme is very honoured to accept the 'Best of the Web' award in the research/online collection category at the 2011 Museums and the Web conference which was held at the Loews Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Unfortunately no one from the Scheme could attend the conference and the award was accepted on our behalf by Dominic Oldman, British Museum IS department. [The site's creator, Daniel Pett, read about the award in a beach bar in Sharm el-Sheikh via the social networking tool twitter.]

The site was up against some very stiff opposition from a wide array of Museums producing excellent online and engaging output. Others in this category included:

  • Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
  • New York Botanical Gardens
  • J. Paul Getty Trust
  • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  • National Museum of American History
  • Museum of the City of New York
  • Windsor Historical Society
  • the STERNA consortium
  • Steve in Action Project Team
  • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
  • Museum Victoria
  • Powerhouse Museum
  • Centraal Museum
  • Queensland Museum
  • The Strong (National Museum of Play, Toy Hall of Fame, ICHEG, National Toy Hall of Fame)

Full details on all these websites and their nominations can be read on the comprehensive Museum and the Web site.

The site in the current format, has now been online for just over a year and builds on open source technology and leverages a wide variety of third party websites to enrich content and has been built on a very small budget. Further improvements are to be released in the next few months, including a more powerful search engine and a guide to Bronze Age objects, and at the end of March, the papers from the Staffordshire Hoard Symposium were released under a Creative Commons Licence. 

Being recognised by our peers in the Museum sector for our project is very gratifying for all of the Scheme's staff, alumni and our dedicated finders, researchers and contributors. Without them, the site would be just a framework.

Lat: 39.9523 Long: -75.1638

Comments: There are already 2 comments

Staffordshire Hoard Symposium papers released

Published: 9 years ago Author:

The hoard laid out in Prehistory basement for valuation

The Portable Antiquities Scheme website now features 16 of the 27 research papers presented at the Staffordshire Hoard Symposium, held at the British Museum in March 2010. These can be accessed at

The papers have been edited by Helen Geake (the Scheme's Finds Adviser for Early Medieval objects) and have been released within a year of the Symposium. The papers include contributions from Guy Halsall, George and Isabel Henderson, David Parsons, Svante Fischer and Jean Soulat, Simon Cane, Simon Keynes, Nicholas Brooks, Karen Høilund Nielsen, Della Hooke, Elisabeth Okasha, David Ganz, Mattias Jacobsson, Benjamin Gearey, Charlotte Behr, Alex Jones and Kevin Leahy.

Many of these papers are illustrated and linked to skeleton records on the Scheme's database where appropriate. There are a few more still to be published, pending agreement with the authors.

These papers are still a work in progress, with edits being made when needed and they are also released under a Creative Commons Non-Commercial Share-Alike licence.

Lat: 51.519 Long: -0.1265

Comments: There are already 1 comments

Frome Hoard of Roman coins saved for nation

Published: 9 years ago Author:

The Frome Hoard in situNational Heritage Memorial Fund steps in to close the Art Fund and Museum of Somerset's campaign to secure the Frome Hoard.

Today, the National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF) is delighted to announce a grant of £294,026 to the Museum of Somerset that will ensure the Frome Hoard will remain in Somerset, where it was discovered. A total of £320,250 was needed to keep Britain's largest collection of silver and bronze Roman coins ever to be unearthed in a single container in Somerset. A further £100,000 has also been raised for its conservation.

News of the NHMF grant marks the end of an intensive fundraising campaign led by the Art Fund, the national fundraising charity for works of art, which kick-started the appeal in November 2010 with a grant of £40,250. Members of public generously donated £13,657, which the Art Fund matched with a further £10,000 through its first ever match funding appeal. The acquisition was also made possible thanks to funding from the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, the MLA/V&A Purchase Grant Fund, the Headley Trust, one of the Sainsbury Family charitable trusts, and other generous donations.

Heritage Minister, John Penrose, said: "Making sure the Frome Hoard stays in Britain is great news, but ensuring it can stay in the very county in which it was discovered is even better. The fantastic work of all the organisations involved including the NHMF, along with the generosity of the public, will mean an important part of our Roman heritage will be enjoyed for years to come."

Dame Jenny Abramsky, Chair of NHMF, said:

"What fantastic news. This is exactly the kind of precious heritage the National Heritage Memorial Fund was set-up 31 years ago to protect. This glorious collection is a truly inspirational discovery which has captured the public's imagination. I am delighted we have been able to step in with the final piece of the jigsaw, to ensure it can be enjoyed by future generations."

Stephen Deuchar, Director of the Art Fund, said:

"We are thrilled that the campaign to save the Frome Hoard has been a success. The Roman coins will go on display in Somerset and provide experts with the opportunity to carry out vital research. Most importantly it will mean that generations can learn, enjoy and be inspired by the coins. It is very much thanks to the generosity of members of the public that we were able to double donations through our match-funding appeal. I'd also like to thank the National Heritage Memorial Fund for making the success of this appeal possible. This is an example of private and public funds coming together to save important heritage items."

The Frome Hoard is the second largest collection of Roman coins ever to be found in Britain and the largest ever to have been found in one single container. Comprising 52,503 coins dating between 253 and 293 AD, they cover the issues of 26 different Roman emperors and some have never been seen before.

Over 760 of the coins belong to the reign of Marcus Aurelius Mauseus Valerius Carausius, known as Britain's Pirate Emperor. Carausius led a revolt against the Empire declaring himself Emperor of Britain and Northern Gaul. This is the largest group of his coins found anywhere.

Along with the unprecedented potential to broaden the understanding of life in 3rd century Roman Britain, this Hoard also challenges the assumption that finds of this nature were buried in order to secure them in uncertain times. The coins were buried at a time of relative peace, in a large fragile pottery container with a smaller pot upturned on top serving as a lid. Nothing suggests this is a practical way to hide money and experts believe that several large 'hoards' of the past will now need to be re-examined to see if their burial is suggestive of ritualistic behaviour rather than concealment.

Stephen Minnitt, Head of the Museum of Somerset said:

"The Frome Hoard has received a tremendous amount of public interest locally and from around the world and I am delighted that the campaign to acquire it was successful. Timing is perfect as we prepare for the opening of the Museum of Somerset in the summer of 2011. The story will not end there however. As the hoard undergoes study over the next year or two many more of its secrets will be unlocked."

The Frome Hoard was discovered by metal detectorist, Dave Crisp near Frome near Somerset last April. Following conservation, the collection will go on permanent display at the Museum of Somerset in Taunton, when it reopens in the summer of 2011 following a £6.9million refurbishment.

For further press information and images, please contact:

Natasha Ley/Alison Scott, NHMF Press Office, 020 7591 6143 or or Lizzie Bloom, Press & Campaigns Manager, the Art Fund,0207 225 4804 or

Notes to Editors

Funding breakdown

  • Acquisition costs £320,250
  • Conservation costs £105,000
  • National Heritage Memorial Fund£294,026
  • Somerset Museum £10,000
  • Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society £10,000
  • MLA/V&A Purchase Grant Fund £20,000
  • The Headley Trust £20,000
  • Art Fund £50,250
  • Other donations £10,408
  • Public fundraising, led by the Art Fund £13,657

National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF)

The National Heritage Memorial Fund was set up to save the most outstanding parts of our national heritage, in memory of those who have given their lives for the UK. NHMF currently receives annual grant-in-aid from the Government of £10million. It is due to receive £20million between 2011-15.

The Frome Hoard joins a diverse range of over 1,200 iconic objects and places which have been safeguarded by the NHMF to the tune of over £300million. These include:

  • The Coenwulf Coin
  • The Macclesfield Psalter
  • The Mappa Mundi
  • The Staffordshire Hoard
  • The Milton Keynes Pot of Gold
  • The Mary Rose
  • The Flying Scotsman
  • The last surviving World War II destroyer, HMS Cavalier
  • Antonio Canova's The Three Graces
  • The personal archive of Siegfried Sassoon, WWI soldier, author and poet.
  • Skokholm Island, Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) in Pembrokeshire

Museum of Somerset

The Frome Hoard will be prominently displayed in the Museum of Somerset, Taunton, when it re-opens in the Summer of 2011. The museum is presently undergoing a £6.9 million refurbishment largely funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Locally, support for the hoard's acquisition has been shown by a contribution of £10,000 from the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society.

Contact Stephen Minnitt, Head of Museum 07917 837521. Email:

The Art Fund

The Art Fund is the national fundraising charity for works of art and plays a major part in enriching the range and quality of art on public display in the UK. It campaigns, fundraises and gives money to museums and galleries to buy and show art, and offers many ways of enjoying it through its events and membership scheme. Under its programme of charitable activity, initiatives include sponsoring the UK tour of the ARTIST ROOMS collection so that it reaches several million people across the UK each year, and fundraising: two recently successful campaigns include bringing in £6 million to save the Staffordshire Hoard for the West Midlands and Pieter Brueghel the Younger's The Procession to Calvary for Nostell Priory, in partnership with the National Trust. The Art Fund is funded entirely by its art-loving and museum-going members and supporters who believe that great art should be for everyone to enjoy. Find out more at Press contact | 020 7225 4888 |

Portable Antiquities Scheme

The Portable Antiquities Scheme was established to encourage the recording of archaeological finds found by the public, and also supports the mandatory reporting of Treasure (such as the Frome Hoard) under the Treasure Act 1996. The Scheme is managed by the British Museum on behalf of the Museums, Libraries & Archives Council. Across England and Wales its Finds Liaison Officers liaise with finders and record their finds, which are published on its online database ( so that people can learn about the archaeology of their local area, and also for the advancement of archaeological knowledge.

Contact Roger Bland, Head of Portable Antiquities and Treasure, 020 7323 8611 or 0898 966 9414; e-mail:

MLA/V&A Purchase Grant Fund

The MLA/V&A Purchase Grant Fund is a government fund that helps regional museums, record offices and specialist libraries in England and Wales to acquire objects relating to the arts, literature and history. It was established at the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in 1881 and continues to be part of its nationwide work. The annual grants budget, currently £900,000, is provided by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA).Each year, the Purchase Grant Fund considers some 250 applications and awards grants to around 100 organisations, enabling acquisitions of around £3 million to go ahead.

Visit the website:

Lat: 51.519 Long: -0.1265

Archaeologist of the Year and Rescue Excavation awards at CA Live 2011

Published: 9 years ago Author:

Sam Moorhead with the Scheme's staffLast weekend saw the Current Archaeology Live 2011 conference at the British Museum and Saturday night saw the presentation of a variety of awards to individuals and organisations. These awards were voted for by the readers of Current Archaeology magazine and website, and two Scheme related categories were available for voting.

The Scheme's National Adviser for Roman and Iron Age coins, Sam Moorhead, was awarded the 'Archaeologist of the Year' award, against stiff opposition from Philip Crummy and Tam Ward. Sam's nomination read as:

Sam Moorhead is the National Finds Advisor for Iron Age and Roman coins in the Department of Portable Antiquities at the British Museum. But he is much more than that: his many achievements and the range of his contributions to archaeology are truly phenomenal. He is a specialist and scholar of the highest standards, yet at the same time a very modest, self-effacing colleague, and also a populariser with a missionary zeal about bringing the prehistoric and ancient worlds alive for the general audience. He has been especially prominent over the last year because of his involvement in the AD 410 commemorations, and in the excavation and analysis of the Frome Hoard - the biggest hoard of Roman coins ever found in Britain.

Sam was central to the major two-day conference at the British Museum in March to debate the end of Roman Britain, which saw the emergence of a new academic consensus that is likely to underpin research for a generation. And, despite his extensive commitments, he also found time to co-author a superb narrative history book, AD 410 - The Year That Shook Rome.

Sam, as modest as ever dedicated the award to our late colleague, Geoff Egan. Sam's involvement in archaeology has seen him excavate extensively in Israel (Tel Jezreel and Caesarea), teaching at Ardingly College in Sussex, lecturing all round the country at universities, NADFAS meetings and metal detecting clubs, trustee at the Palestine Exploration Fund and membership of numerous academic societies. He even recently dressed as a slave at the Roman Society's Centenary celebrations at the British Museum and has been awarded Honorary Lecturership status at University College London.

The CA246 coverSecondly, the amazing discovery of the Frome Hoard, was nominated in the 'Rescue excavation of the Year' category, a dig co-ordinated by Alan Graham, which has yielded amazing results and 52,503 coins that will keep the new archaeologist of the year and his colleagues extremely busy for a few years to come. The dig's story was documented in Current Archaeology 246 and Sam Moorhead accepted the award on behalf of all who were involved in the discovery (Dave Crisp - the finder) and excavation (Anna Booth, Alan Graham, Steve Minnitt, Naomi Payne, Katie Hinds). The hoard's excavation and the story behind the discovery are also told in the recent publication - Frome Hoard (Moorhead, Booth and Bland 2010) and it is hoped that following a national fund raising campaign, that it is acquired for Somerset.

Lat: 51.519 Long: -0.1265

Comments: There are already 4 comments

Geoffrey Egan PhD, FSA Archaeologist and finds expert

Published: 9 years ago Author:

19.10.51 - 24.12.10  

Full version of obituary by Chris Catling submitted to the Times

Geoff Egan framed in a hatch

Shakespeare's description of Autolycus, the pickpocket and pedlar in A Winter's Tale, as 'a snapper-up of unconsidered trifles', aptly sums up Geoff Egan, who was a world expert on just the kind of novelties, toys, trinkets, buttons, hooks and bells that would have formed the stock-in-trade of an Elizabethan fairground hawker or packman.

In archaeological parlance, Egan was a 'small finds expert', but where most specialists in this field narrow their studies to one type of object, Egan had an encyclopaedic knowledge of a multiplicity of objects. In the children's toys, dice or pilgrims' badges that he studied, or the lead seals that were the subject of his doctoral thesis, attached to cloth by the maker, sometimes by finishers (eg the dyers) and the taxation authorities as a guarantee of provenance and quality, Egan initially saw stories of daily life and changing fashion and the developing economy of a city that was to become the capital of a worldwide empire, but his interests became much more wide ranging and encompassed the trade, economy and life of all Europe and beyond.

Born in Harrow, Egan was the son of Daphne, who was a lab technician before her marriage and Dr Harold Egan, the distinguished biochemist who had held the position of Government Chemist between 1970 and 1981. Educated at Harrow grammar school, Geoffrey Egan went up to Peterhouse, Cambridge, initially to read Classics. Friends there introduced him to the sociable tea room in the Archaeology and Anthropology Faculty, an institution that has played a catalytic role in the lives of many now-eminent archaeologists, and Egan soon realised how he wanted to spend the rest of his life.

The periods that interested Egan most - the medieval and post-medieval - were still regarded as 'fringe' territory in the 1970s, the realm of the historian rather than the archaeologist. That began to change with the rapid pace of development in London and the discovery that during the Roman and medieval periods large parcels of land had been reclaimed from the Thames, each plot of new land being infilled with whatever refuse lay to hand.

For archaeologists, these waterlogged wharfs, with their well-preserved organic objects of wood, leather and textile, provided a fascinating insight into the domestic and industrial life of the developing city, and it was to this 'detritus' that Egan devoted his life after graduating in 1976. Employed initially as a 'digger' on those waterfront excavations (intermittently also working as a gardener at Kew), he rose to the rank of site supervisor with the Museum of London's Department of Urban Archaeology before becoming the museum's specialist in medieval and later non-ceramic finds.

It was in this capacity that he published more than 100 papers in academic journals, and an impressive series of books on small finds from London that are now classic reference works, These include such major monographs as Dress Accessories (1991, with Frances Pritchard), Lead Cloth Seals (1995), Playthings from the Past (1996), The Medieval Household (1998), Trifles, Toys and Trinkets (2005, with Hazel Forsyth), Material Culture in an Age of Transition (2006), about everyday objects from the Tudor and Stuart periods, and Meols: The Archaeology of the North Wirral Coast, (2007, co-written with David Griffiths and Robert Philpott) about the enormous number of later medieval and post-medieval finds discovered at the site of a beach market at Meols, on the Wirral Peninsula.

Egan relished nothing better than finding a type of object that had been neglected in recent scholarship. He would then scour libraries and antiquarian bookshops for anything that would throw light on the subject - preferably works contemporary with the objects he was studying. He read voraciously until he had mastered all the facts about the manufacture, use and date of the object. As a result, the house in which he was born in Wembley, and that he had inherited from his parents, was filled with a sea of books.

He taught himself German, Russian and several Scandinavian languages in order to read excavation reports and was an adventurous traveller, visiting museums as far afield as Mongolia in order to add to his store of knowledge, and very often being welcomed on arrival with boxes of objects that he would be asked to identify. One such journey of 100 days took him round the world in 49 plane flights and numerous trains in 1987 and stemmed from his desire to visit a life-long friend working in Papua New Guinea.

His natural gifts as a communicator meant that he was much in demand as a speaker, and he was just as much at home talking to an international conference in Lubeck, Nuremberg or Gdansk as he was talking to a local society or metal detecting club in Blackpool or Liverpool.

He was a founder member of the Finds Research Group in 1984 and served on its committee for 19 years, organising several of its conferences and trips. Having been on the council of the Society of Post-Medieval Archaeology since 1982, he served as its President from 2005 to 2008, co-editing the 50th anniversary volume of the Society's journal in 2009 and organising conferences for that Society - choosing faraway places that he wanted to visit, such as the West Indies or Williamsburg, Virginia.

In 2004, Egan was seconded part-time from the Museum of London to the British Museum as National Finds Adviser on Early Medieval to Post Medieval Finds for the Portable Antiquities Scheme, and from July 2010 the post, which he described as his dream job, was made permanent. At the BM, his legendary knowledge was put to effective use in identifying tens of thousands of finds brought to the museum by members of the public every year, the most interesting of which he wrote up in successive Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Reports and in the Journal of Post-Medieval Archaeology.

In May 2009, Egan was elected Master of the Company of Arts Scholars, Dealers and Collectors - quite possibly the first time that a professional archaeologist had ever served as the head of a City of London guild. Nobody who was there will forget the Company's Fourth Annual Lecture, given by Egan on 25 October 2010 at Carpenters' Hall on the subject of 'Glorious Mud: treasures from the Thames', made memorable by the playing of a replica of a late 14th-century trumpet, 1.6 metres in length, that Geoff had found whilst undertaking a watching brief at Billingsgate Market lorry park.

For Egan, that Thames mud was a huge lucky dip that kept on giving up archaeological treasures (in recent weeks for example, volunteers working for the Thames Discovery Programme have found the 30m-long skeleton of a right whale and London's oldest structure, a 6,000-year old timber structure at Vauxhall). At a time when many in the archaeological community were hostile to the activities of mudlarks and detectorists scouring the foreshore for finds, Egan shared their passion for discovery and helped to bridge the two worlds. Such was his rapport with the detectorists that when the History Channel recently made a programme about them ('Mud Men'; to be broadcast in February 2011), they told the producer that Geoff was 'god'. Egan would have been as proud of the tributes paid to him on detectorists' social media sites since his death as of any academic accolade.

Egan died suddenly, of a coronary thrombosis, in the prime of life and with much left to give. Despite his sociability, love of jazz and good food, and large and international circle of friends, his lifestyle was not one easily shared with a companion, and he never married. He came from a loving and supportive family, and he regarded his best friend and next of kin, the landscape architect Graham Martin, as more like a brother than the cousin he was.

Geoffrey Egan, medieval and post-medieval finds expert, was born on October 19, 1951. He died on December 24, 2010, aged 59.

Obituary from The Searcher, and also submitted to the Guardian by Roger Bland

Geoff Egan, who died on 24 December 2010, was the leading expert in medieval and later small finds and pioneered liaison with the 'mudlarks' who search for finds on the Thames foreshore in London. Digging in thick mud against the tide, mudlarks have retrieved a fascinating trove of metal artefacts that had been lost by generations of Londoners on the banks of the Thames. In the 1970s they were shunned by many professional archaeologists, who deplored what they saw as their unscientific methods of retrieval, but many had great expertise in the finds they made and some, like Tony Pilson, donated their collections to the Museum of London and the British Museum.

Geoff had done some mudlarking himself. Together with his colleague Hazel Forsyth, Geoff published the collection of Toys, Trifles and Trinkets that Tony Pilson donated to the Museum of London. This pioneering work studied a class of artefact (children's metal toys made between about 1200 and 1800) that had not been recognised by archaeologists before the discoveries of the mudlarks brought significant numbers to light. 

As the specialist in medieval and later non-ceramic finds in the Museum of London Archaeology Service Geoff played a key role in the series of catalogues on Medieval Finds from Excavations in London which are an essential reference for all specialists in this period, and he was personally responsible for two volumes: The Medieval Household and Dress Accessories (with Frances Pritchard). He also wrote Material Culture in London in an Age of Transition: Tudor & Stuart Period Finds from Southwark.

Another area of interest centred on the lead seals that were affixed to textiles sent out in trade from the 14th to the 18th centuries: Geoff appreciated that recording the find spots of these unprepossessing objects can give us much information about the cloth trade, for a long time was the main source of the England's prosperity. Geoff's study of these led to a doctorate from the Institute of Archaeology London and also resulted in a publication of a catalogue of seals in the British Museum. Geoff was also a key player in the project to catalogue the unique series of finds from the enigmatic site of Meols on the Wirral coast: the settlement itself has disappeared into the sea (it is thought to have been a beach market) and it is known mainly to us through the finds. The monumental catalogue, written with David Griffiths and Rob Philpott, is another key reference for specialists. In all Geoff contributed more than 100 papers and notes to both national and county journals.

Geoff Egan was born in Wembley in north-west London on 19 October 1951, the only son of Daphne and Dr Harold Egan, who was the Government Chemist between 1970 and 1981 and later wrote the history of the Laboratory of the Government Chemist. Geoff was educated at what he described as the 'academic hothouse' of Harrow County School, and gained a place at Peterhouse College Cambridge to study Classics, although he subsequently switched to Archaeology and Anthropology, which he found more congenial. This change was to dictate the course of his career. 

After graduation in 1975 Geoff worked for a while at Kew Gardens, but a life-long love of travel took him to Norway, where he ended up working on an archaeological excavation in Trondheim and his future career as an archaeologist was set. On his return to England in 1976 he obtained a job as an archaeologist at the Museum of London, and he stayed there for the next 34 years. Starting on the bottom rung, Geoff worked his way up to be a fieldwork director before becoming a finds specialist.

The 1970s were great days in the excavations of London as the boom in the redevelopment of the City led to an enormous upsurge in archaeological excavations and the Department of Urban Archaeology at the Museum of London, as it then was, was created to respond to this need. 

Geoff's encyclopaedic knowledge of finds and his experience in working with the mudlarks meant that his expertise was of great value to the Portable Antiquities Scheme, established in 1997 to record finds made by members of the public. Geoff had had a part-time role with the Scheme since 2004 and in July 2010 he was appointed to a full-time post as Finds Adviser for the Scheme, based at the British Museum. He said this was his dream job and it is a tragic loss that he held it for so short a time, dying of coronary thrombosis at his home just before Christmas. Geoff was always keen to share his encyclopaedic knowledge of finds with experts and amateurs alike. He was in great demand as a speaker and he was as much at home talking at an international conference as to a local society or metal detecting club - in the month before he died he had spoken at an archaeological colloquium in Lübeck, advising Gdansk museum on their collections, while the next week he was back speaking at a metal detecting club in Blackpool. His sheer enthusiasm and knowledge was infectious. When ITN proposed to make a series of programmes called Mud Men on finds from the Thames foreshore, shortly to be screened on the History Channel, the mudlarks urged ITN to engage Geoff's services - they said that as far as they were concerned he was 'god'.

Geoff did not have great respect for authority, whether that was Peterhouse College Cambridge, or his managers in his professional life, but he loved working with fellow-archaeologists and researchers through societies. He was greatly loved by his peers and of the many people I have spoken to about him, no one had a bad word to say about him. A Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, he was also a linch-pin of the Finds Research Group, organising several of its conferences and visits and speaking at most of them. He had been on the council of the Society of Post-Medieval Archaeology since 1982 and served as its President from 2005 to 2008. He also organised conferences for that Society - preferably in faraway places such as the West Indies or Williamsburg, Virginia. He had a great love of travel and built up many friends in European and American museums: he had accompanied the Finds Research Group on a trip to Nuremberg two weeks before he died. But perhaps the organisation that gave Geoff greatest pleasure was the Company of Arts Scholars, Collectors and Dealers, one of the newest of the city guilds. Geoff served as its master in 2009-10 and one of his proudest moments was last summer when he joined members of the guild who exercised their right as freemen of the City of London and to drive a flock of sheep across London Bridge.

Geoff was a magpie. His home in Wembley, where he lived all his life, was crammed full of the fruits of his collecting, from his childhood collection of pottery sherds and other antiquities, all neatly classified in metal cabinets, to a massive collection of books.

He even kept the many tickets he accumulated from his extensive travels. He never took to modern technology. ITN were surprised to learn that he did not possess a mobile phone and the ways of computers were a bit of a mystery to him: he continually battled with his e-mail inbox. Geoff would have been more at home with a quill pen in the tradition of 18th century gentleman scholars such as William Stukeley.


Donations in memory of Geoff may sent to The Company of Arts Scholars Charitable Trust, c/o The Clerk, 28 AldebertLondon SW8 1BJ (

Memorial event

There will be a memorial event for Geoff in the BP lecture theatre at the British Museum from 2 to 5.30 pm on 24 March at which his friends and colleagues will contribute their memories of him and there will also be clips from the TV series Mud Men.

All are welcome and there is no charge; please contact to reserve a place.

Lat: 51.519 Long: -0.1265

Comments: There are already 1 comments

CBA Community Archaeology bursaries

Published: 9 years ago Author:

CBA logo, text in a green backgroundThe CBA is advertising nine 12-month-long training placements in community archaeology across England, Wales and Scotland.

The Council for British Archaeology, a registered charity (287815) with a secretariat based in York, is advertising nine 12-month-long training placements in community archaeology, supported by the National Lottery through the Heritage Lottery Fund, with additional support from English Heritage, Cadw, Historic Scotland and the Welsh Archaeological Trusts.

The Community Archaeology Bursaries Project supports work-based training placements across the UK which aim to provide valuable workplace learning opportunities for individuals with a background in archaeology who are seeking to develop their skills in working with community groups and running community archaeology projects.

This is the first round of such placements over the next three years. The host organisations and locations for the Year one Community Archaeology Training Placements (CATPs) are:

  • Cadw (Cardiff)
  • Centre for Applied Archaeology, University of Salford (Manchester)
  • Dyfed Archaeological Trust (Llandeilo)
  • Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust (Swansea)
  • Gwynedd Archaeological Trust (Bangor)
  • National Museums Liverpool (Liverpool)
  • Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (Edinburgh)
  • Surrey County Archaeological Unit (Woking)
  • York Archaeological Trust (York)

Bursary: See individual job descriptions

For complete details of these training placements (including the application forms) please download the relevant application pack via our Community Archaeology Training Placements page (, or visit the host organisation websites.

Closing date for all CATP applications: Friday 11th February
Interview dates: See individual application packs.

For specific queries about the Community Archaeology Bursaries Project, email us on

81 - 90 of 270 records.

Other formats: this page is available as xml json rss atom representations.