ESS-A38F0D:

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ASSEMBLAGE

Unique ID: ESS-A38F0D

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

An assemblage of lithic artefacts found within an approximate 0.25km2 area. Many of the flints appear to be similar in form, colour and manufacture process and so it is suggested that the majority of them are representative of an assemblage from a single occupation site. This does not suggest that they originate from the same deposition sequence or event, but that they are broadly similar in form to suggest a Mesolithic date across the assemblage.

For ease of explanation, the assemblage has been separated into lithics of a specific form or suggested function.

Hammerstones

Description

Dimensions

1

Sub-spherical hammerstone of dark grey flint. About 30% of the surface is cortex and the rest is knapped. There are definite areas of pitting and crushing, which suggests its use as a hammerstone for knapping. The flake removals from the lithic are likely an attempt to make the 'ball' shape.

Width: 66.5mm

Height: 57.9

Weight: 244.7g

2

Knapped lithic implement, likely a hammerstone, of light orange-brown colour. The artefact shows evidence of linear flake removals which could suggest that it was previously used as a small core. There are some irregular angular fractures which are possibly the result of damage or knapping mistakes. There is a 'rounded' portion with extensive pitting and crushing on the surface which suggests its use as a hammerstone

Width: 47.6mm

Height: 31.7mm

Weight: 67.14g

Cores

Description

Dimensions

3

Light orange-brown coloured flint core. There are many angular fractures on the artefact, though some shallow and broader flake removals are visible. Most of the surfaces have been knapped, though there is a small portion of cortex remaining.

Width: 48.3mm

Height: 38.7mm

Weight: 91.35g

4

Sub-pyramidal shaped flint core of dark brown to light orange-brown coloured flint. The artefact has been flaked on all faces in order to produce a core capable of providing thin blades when knapped. We can see the removals of these flake blades on one face in particular, where multiple flakes have been struck in narrow sections.

Width: 43.3mm

Height: 58.4mm

Weight: 71.35g

5

Trapezoidal shaped core of light orange-brown colour. All faces have been knapped and shaped to form a roughly pyramidal shape, again to accommodate removals of long thin blades. There is some pitting and very small removals around one section of the edge of the 'flat' top portion, which could suggest that there is platform preparation. The removals made perpendicular to these small flake removals are indeed blade removals, with the flake scars being long, thin and linear.

Width: 43.3mm

Height: 52.2mm

Weight: 70.56g

Scrapers

Description

Dimensions

6

Light brown-orange coloured flint implement, likely a scraper. There is a large section of cortex present on the upper surface, which is cut into by a number of over-lapping flake removals. These removals seems designed to create a steep edge around the perimeter of the implement. The underside does not appear to be worked, and may have been picked up as an object of interest which was then fashioned into a tool. There is a small vein of quartz visible on the underside.

Width: 62.8mm

Length: 45.0mm

Thickness: 21.1mm

Weight: 55.82g

7

Sub-triangular shaped lithic implement of dark brown flint. Due to the steep retouched edges I would suggest that it is a scraper. The implement is formed of a struck blade with knapped and retouched edges. The ventral face shows a very prominent bulb of percussion. The ventral face also shows a large flake removal, and this artefact is therefore likely to be a tertiary or more flake. There is some form of knapping present on all edges of the dorsal face, and there is steep-sided flaking particularly prevalent along the distal edge (viewed dorsally).

Width: 53.7mm

Length: 40.9mm

Thickness: 13.3mm

Weight: 25.45g

8

Worked flint implement of dark brown to light brown-orange colour. The artefact is likely a scraper, and was made on a primary or secondary flake. There is some cortex remaining on the dorsal face. There are large thinning flake removals along the length of the flake. The butt portion is the thicket point of the flake. There is thinning edge retouch around much of the edge. The distal edge terminates in a hinge fracture

Width: 47.3mm

Length: 50.3mm

Thickness: 17.4mm

Weight: 43.62g

9

Trapezoidal shaped flint implement of brown-orange colour. The item is made from a struck flake. The ventral face shows a prominent bulb of percussion. Pitting crushing around the butt end on the dorsal face is suggestive of a preparation platform for the removal of the flake blank. Both of the edges are flat and the left edge (viewed dorsally) is mostly cortex. The distal edge is slopes downward and was likely worked through the removal of the 'tranchet' type flake. The distal edge also shows evidence of extremely fine sharpening retouch. The shape and the edge sharpness would suggest that it is a scraper.

Width: 37.6mm

Length: 36.9mm

Thickness: 9.9mm

Weight: 14.08g

Blades and flaked tools (3-10cm)

Description

Dimensions

10

Flake blade of dark brown translucent flint. The dorsal face still has a significant amount of cortex visible. There is thinning retouch along both the left and right edges (viewed dorsally). A bulb of percussion is visible on the ventral face, and the flake appears to terminate at the distal end in a hinge fracture.

Length: 38.5mm

Width: 18.4mm

Thickness: 5.0mm

Weight: 4.73g

11

Broken flint blade of a dark grey colour. The bulb of percussion is present though the butt portion of the flake is rather thin. It could be that the strike was particularly strong or that the flake is an example of debitage and so was not struck with specific accuracy. However, there does seem to be some blunting retouch along the left edge (viewed dorsally) which would suggest that the flake was utilised as a tool at some point.

Length: 31.5mm

Width: 19.2mm

Thickness: 5.9mm

Weight: 3.97g

12

Tear-drop shaped flake of a dark brown to light orange/cream-brown colour. There is a visible bulb of percussion on the ventral face. The working is restricted to the dorsal face. There is steep-sided retouch along the distal-right edge (viewed dorsally). A significant amount of cortex survives along the left edge

Length: 35.5mm

Width: 19.5mm

Thickness: 8.7mm

Weight: 4.71g

13

Flake implement of grey flint. The dorsal face shows a significant amount of cortex and is probably a primary or secondary flake that was used as a tool. There is a visible bulb of percussion on the ventral face and scaled retouch on the left edge and distal end, visible on the ventral face. The

Length: 46.1mm

Width: 21.8mm

Thickness: 9.4mm

Weight: 9.00g

14

Flake implement of dark brown flint. Interestingly, this flake is thicker at the distal end than the proximal, and the area of the bulb of percussion is either extremely diminished or has broken off. Around the proximal edge there is evidence of small0scale retouch and pitting, which could suggest striking platform preparation. There is evidence of steep-sided retouch around much of the edge perimeter of the flake (viewed dorsally) Because the shape of the distal edge and the sharp point of the implement, it is possible that it was used as a borer. It is placed in the 'blade' category merely as it shares similarities in manufacture technique. It is also important to note that many of these tools may have been used for more than one purpose and would not fit so easily into a single category.

Length: 46.3mm

Width: 18.6mm

Thickness: 11.2mm

Weight: 6.96g

16

irregularly shaped flake implement of dark grey to brown translucent flint. There is a visible bulb of percussion on the ventral surface. When viewed from the dorsal face, the left edge appears to show disorganised steep retouch. The distal end of the flake appears to be broken. There is cortex present at the right proximal end (viewed dorsally).

Length: 42.7mm

Width: 22.6mm

Thickness: 8.2mm

Weight: 6.28g

17

Flake implement of dark brown flint. The dorsal face features angular fractures and some small-scale retouch along the left edge, as well as some remaining cortex. The ventral face shows retouch along the upper right edge (viewed ventrally). There seems to be a shear break at the proximal or butt end which suggests breakage in the past.

Length: 42.1mm

Width: 24.2mm

Thickness: 8.0mm

Weight: 9.39g

18

Irregularly shaped flint flake, possibly retouched debitage or an ad-hoc blade. The implement is made of dark grey flint with light grey inclusions. The dorsal face still shows some cortex at the proximal end and some possible retouch along the left edge (viewed dorsally). The ventral face terminates in a hinge fracture at the distal end.

Length: 41.4mm

Width: 24.3mm

Thickness: 94mm

Weight: 10.04g

19

Lithic artefact of light brown-grey translucent flint. The artefact is angular and on first inspection appears to be debitage. However, the right edge (viewed ventrally) features a distinct inward curve, seemingly formed by small-scale retouch along the edge. It is likely that the tool was used for some specialist task, such as textile or wood thinning work. The flake terminates in a hinge fracture at the distal end.

Length: 37.4mm

Width: 17.1mm

Thickness: 8.6mm

Weight: 5.42g

20

Lithic implement from a struck flake of dark brown flint. The dorsal face has a distinctive and tall central arris. There is also cortex visible on this face, particularly at the distal end. There is a distinctive bulb on the ventral surface. There appears to be some small-scale retouch on the right distal edge (viewed dorsally), however it is possible that this is natural edge damage. In the latter case, I would suggest that the flake is likely debitage.

Length: 45.4mm

Width: 22.8mm

Thickness: 11.1mm

Weight: 13.33g

21

Lithic flake implement of dark grey to light grey flint. Bulb of percussion present on ventral face. The dorsal face retains some cortex, and there is some small-scale localised retouch, though most of the flake is not worked. It is possible that this flake was debitage that was used opportunistically.

Length: 62.5mm

Width: 30.9mm

Thickness: 8.2mm

Weight: 17.40g

22

Irregularly shaped lithic implement made from a struck flint flake. Dark brown in colour. The butt portion is thinner than that of the distal end of the flake, and there is retouch around the butt edge as well as along the left edge (viewed dorsally). The dorsal face also retains some cortex and the right side is steep with some larger scaled removals. There is also some retouch along the right distal edge of the ventral face. Again, the flake is angular and appears to be an opportunistically utilised piece of debitage rather than a predetermined formal lithic tool-type.

Length: 66.6mm

Width: 32.8mm

Thickness: 18.5mm

Weight: 31.72g

23

Butt portion of a broken flake blade or knife implement. Dark brown in colour. There is a bulb of percussion present on the ventral face, as well as some very localised retouch about half way up the left edge (viewed ventrally). The dorsal face retains some cortex on the left side. The butt portion shows evidence of retouch, as do both left and right edges. The distal edge ends in a break.

Length: 38.3mm

Width: 23.5mm

Thickness: 10.9mm

Weight: 9.87g

24

Flint implement of light brown-orange colour with some light grey inclusions. There is no distinct bulb of percussion on the ventral face, with some localised retouch along the proximal right side edge (viewed ventrally). The dorsal face has some height, with some distinct arrises and evidence of many flake removals suggesting that it is likely a secondary or tertiary flake. Whilst there is some natural crushing on the right edge on the distal portion (viewed dorsally), there also appears to be some evidence of retouch below it. There is also some retouch present on the left distal edge.

Length: 65.7mm

Width: 29.8mm

Thickness: 12.5mm

Weight: 22.91g

25

Broken flake blade with triangular cross section. Deep dark brown colour. The bulb of percussion is visible on the ventral face. The dorsal face features a very distinct central arris, as well as other facets formed by multiple flake removals. The flake is likely a secondary or tertiary flake. There is generally very little retouch present, though there appears to be some around the butt portion and the proximal left edge (viewed dorsally).

Length: 53.3mm

Width: 21.8mm

Thickness: 15.5mm

Weight: 16.43g

26

Flint flaked implement, likely primary or secondary flake, of brown-orange colour. There is no prominent bulb of percussion on the ventral face. There is some cortex remaining on the left side of the dorsal face (viewed dorsally). There is some small-scale localised retouch on the right edge, approximately in the middle. The flake terminates at the distal end in a pronounced curving hinge fracture.

Length: 59.1mm

Width: 25.7mm

Thickness: 15.4mm

Weight: 23.99g

27

Lithic implement of dark brown / light grey flint. The bulb of percussion is present on the ventral face. The flake terminates at the distal end in a step fracture. The distal edge at the top seems to have been faceted through retouch, possibly to created a blunted edge. The dorsal face has small-scale parallel retouch along the proximal left edge (viewed dorsally), as well as some small-scale retouch along the distal right edge. There is some remaining cortex along the distal edge.

Length: 55.3mm

Width: 20.9mm

Thickness: 12.7mm

Weight: 14.48g

28

Irregularly shaped angularly flaked lithic implement, or possible debitage. There is no obvious bulb of percussion on the ventral face and there is a great deal of crushing and natural damage on both faces and along most edges. There is some possible retouch along the edges of the ventral face.

Length: 55.0mm

Width: 28.2mm

Thickness: 15.8mm

Weight: 25.84g

29

Flake implement of light grey to dark grey flint. The flake is very angular and the butt portion is significantly thinned, likely in order to produce a sharp edge or scraping edge. This thinning retouch can be seen along the proximal edge of the dorsal face. Further retouch can be seen along the left edge (viewed dorsally).

Length: 45.8mm

Width: 26.0mm

Thickness: 13.0mm

Weight: 13.88g

30

Flake blade of dark brown-orange coloured flint. There is retouch around much of the edge on the dorsal face, and particularly steep-sided retouch along the distal edge resembling a scraper edge. The ventral face features some invasive retouch at around the mid-point of the right edge (viewed ventrally) where there is some denticulated curving.

Length:49.6mm

Width: 18.6mm

Thickness: 7.5mm

Weight: 8.49

31

Triangular Shaped flake implement of dark brown to brown-orange coloured flint. The bulb of percussion is visible on the ventral face, and there is retouch along the right edge. The retouch on the distal right edge (viewed ventrally) is parallel and particularly fine. The dorsal face features a central arris and crushing at the proximal edge.

Length: 46.0mm

Width: 24.6mm

Thickness: 7.6mm

Weight: 7.69g

32

Flint flake implement or possible debitage. There does not seem to be retouch on either face, though the flake scars on the dorsal face and the bulb of percussion on the ventral are suggestive of human knapping. The edges are extremely sharp and the item could certainly have been used as a cutting implement

Length: 35.9mm

Width: 24.0mm

Thickness: 5.9mm

Weight: 4.96g

33

Broken flint flake blade of light brown-orange colour. There is small-scale parallel retouch along both edges of the dorsal face. There are also multiple linear flake scars on the dorsal face. It appears that both the proximal and distal edges are broken. The blade is relatively thin with a semi-circular cross-section.

Length: 30.6mm

Width: 17.8mm

Thickness: 5.0mm

Weight: 3.05g

34

Flint flake blade of light brown-yellow colour. There is a prominent bulb of percussion present on the ventral face, along with retouch on both edges. The dorsal face also features retouch, particularly along the right edge and on the distal edge.

Length: 44.8mm

Width: 19.6mm

Thickness:6.5mm

Weight: 5.28g

Microliths (<3cm)

Description

Dimensions

35

Microlith or small flake implement of light brown-orange flint. The ventral face is smooth and curves at the proximal end near to the remains of a slight bulb of percussion. The dorsal face is extremely faceted, with the left side (viewed dorsally) shows both invasive flaking and finer edge retouch. On the right side, there is a curved-in area in the distal half of the flake which seems to have been retouched to create a sharp curved edge.

Length: 27.8mm

Width: 12.1mm

Thickness: 4.4mm

Weight: 1.61g

36

Broken microlithic blade of light brown-orange flint. The ventral face is smooth whilst the dorsal face is faceted with linear arrises and flake scars. There is some very fine small-scale linear retouch on the left edge (viewed dorsally). The distal edge ends in a clean straight-line break.

Length: 21.0mm

Width: 11.5mm

Thickness: 4.4mm

Weight: 1.28g

37

Microlithic flaked flint implement of light brown-orange colour. There is a pronounced bulb of percussion on the ventral face. The dorsal face is faceted and shows linear flake scars. There is some very fine retouch at the distal left edge (viewed dorsally).

Length: 17.7mm

Width: 10.8mm

Thickness: 3.2mm

Weight: 0.73g

38

Slightly curved microlithic flint blade of dark brown colour. There is a bulb of percussion on the ventral face. The dorsal face features very fine retouch along the proximal right edge (viewed dorsally). There also appears to be some denticulated retouch along the distal right edge.

Length: 27.0mm

Width: 10.4mm

Thickness: 4.7mm

Weight: 1.04g

Debitage

Description

Dimensions

39

Sub-circular flake of dark brown to light brown-orange flint. Likely struck during a knapping process. There appears to be no retouch or further working on the flint, though its size and the relatively regular flake scars and bulb of percussion suggest it was a 'waste' flake or debitage.

Length: 63.3mm

Width:50.2mm

Thickness: 19.4mm

Weight: 59.79mm

41

Sub circular flake of dark brown to light brown-orange flint. There is no visible retouch on either face of the flake, which terminates in a pronounced hinge fracture at the distal edge. It is likely debitage.

Length: 41.8mm

Width: 46.2mm

Thickness: 11.7mm

Weight: 21.94g

Axes and large knives

Description

Dimensions

42

Large flake blade of dark grey to light grey flint. There is a visible bulb of percussion on the ventral face, and invasive scalar retouch on the distal left edge (viewed ventrally), which is directly opposite a natural concavity on the dorsal face. The result is a thinned, sharpened edge at this point. The dorsal face shows long and linear flake removal scars with some possible localised fine retouch on the proximal left edge, as well as some retouch around a slight protuberance on the right edge (viewed dorsally). The distal edge is broken, probably in antiquity, as there appears to be retouch along it perpendicular to the dorsal face, which is suggestive of re-use.

Length: 76.8mm

Width: 39.5mm

Thickness: 13.1mm

Weight: 52.31g

43

Flaked axe or adze implement, broken at the centre. Flint is dark grey to light grey in colour with some inclusions. It is bifacially knapped with some cortex remaining on the pointed end. It is roughly pointed oval in cross section. The section can be clearly seen at the straight-line break at the opposite end to that of the point. There appears to be some edge crushing along both edges.

Length: 89.6mm

Width: 40.1mm

Thickness: 29.1mm

Weight: 105.60g

44

Bifacially worked knife implement of dark brown to brown-orange flint. The tool is an elongated teardrop shape with a pointed oval cross section at the blade (curved) end and a triangular section at the pointed end. The curved end is thinned on one face by a series of parallel invasive removal flakes, with some smaller-scale retouch at the edge. The same face retains some cortex. The opposite face is worked across the entire surface, with thinning retouch around the edges.

Length: 116.8mm

Width: 43.0mm

Thickness: 28.8mm

Weight: 136.63g

45

Bifacially worked 'tranchet' axe of dark grey to light grey flint. Both faces are extensively worked, though the butt portion of one face retains a small amount of cortex. The edges of both faces are defined by small-flake removals and retouch. The distal edge is characterised by a relatively straight edge with a slight downward curve. There is retouch around the distal edge that thins the bladed area. The tranchet removal terminates in an upward curving stepped fracture. There is also retouch around the tranchet removal, likely to further define the cutting blade edge.

Length: 120.5mm

Width: 50.0mm

Thickness: 33.1mm

Weight: 249.5g

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder

Chronology

Broad period: MESOLITHIC
Period from: MESOLITHIC
Period to: MESOLITHIC

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 45

Personal details

This information is restricted for your access level.

Materials and construction

Primary material: Flint
Manufacture method: Knapped/flaked
Completeness: Complete

Spatial metadata

Region: Eastern (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Essex (County)
District: Castle Point (District)

Spatial coordinates

4 Figure: TQ8086
Four figure Latitude: 51.54418659
Four figure longitude: 0.59442488
1:25K map: TQ8086
1:10K map: TQ88NW
Grid reference source: Centred on field
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 100 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Fieldwalking
General landuse: Cultivated land

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Audit data

Recording Institution: ESS
Created: 3 years ago
Updated: 3 years ago

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