KENT-D322C8: Papal Bulla of Gregory IX

Rights Holder: Kent County Council
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Unique ID: KENT-D322C8

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

An Incomplete, worn and warped Medieval lead bulla of pope Gregory IX (1227-1241), issued between 1228 and 1240.

Description: The bulla is missing much of the top and part of the bottom with significant abrasion around all edges which means very little of the beaded border which should be present is visible.

Obverse: Bearded heads of St. Peter (right) and St. Paul left facing each other in three quarters profile. a long cross between and beaded, halo? border surrounding each. Legend: Above '[SPA SPE]'.

Reverse: Legend in 3 lines within in beaded border. Legend: 'GRE/G[ORI]VS./PP VIIII', with omega above 'PP'/

As well as significant abrasion the bulla has a white/cream colour typical of patinated lead.

Measurements: 36.09mm wide, 38.11mm long, 4.8mm thick and 39.1g in weight.

Discussion: Gregory IX issued 17 Bull decrees over his reign, the first of these came 1228 and the last in 1240. These included the founding of the Inquisition and a number of contradictory orders regarding Jewish communities. See the Notes section for details.




Bull details

1228 (October 21)

Remitting interest on Crusaders' debts to Jews and granting a "moratorium" for repayment


Mira Circa Nos

canonizing St. Francis of Assisi


Quo elongati

Resolved issues concerning the testament of Francis of Assisi.

1231 (April 13)

Parens scientiarum
("The Mother of Sciences")

Guarantees the independence of the University of Paris.

1232 (February 8)

Ille humani generis

Instructed the Dominican prior of Regensburg to form an Inquisitional tribunal.

1233 (April 6)

Etsi Judaeorum
("Even if the Jews")

Demands that Jews in Christian countries be treated with the same humanity with which Christians wish to be treated in heathen lands.

1233 (June)

Vox in Rama

Calls for action against Luciferians, a supposed sect of Devil worshippers


Licet ad capiendos

Marks the start of the Inquisition by the Church.


Sufficere debuerat

Forbids Christians to dispute on matters of faith with Jews


Pietati proximum

Confirms Germanic Orders rule of Kulmerland.


Rex pacificus

Announcement of the Liber Extra, the collection of papal decretals.

1234 (June 5)

To Thibaut of Navarre, enforcing the badge

1234 (July 3)

"Fons Sapientiae"

canonizes Saint Dominic


Confirms "Sicut Jud├Žis"


Cum hora undecima
("Since the eleventh hour")

First bull authorizing friars to preach to pagan nations.

1239 (June 20)

Si vera sunt
("If they are true")

Orders the seizure and examination of Jewish writings, especially the Talmud, suspected of blasphemies against Christ and the Church.


Ordering all Jewish books in Castile to be seized on first Saturday in Lent while Jews were in synagogue

Inscription: Obverse: [SPA SPE], Reverse: 'GRE/G[ORI]VS./PP VIIII'

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder


Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Subperiod from: Middle
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Subperiod to: Middle
Period to: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Exactly AD 1228
Date to: Exactly AD 1240

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 1
Length: 36.09 mm
Width: 38.11 mm
Thickness: 4.8 mm
Weight: 39.1 g

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Mr Jo Ahmet
Identified by: Mr Jo Ahmet

Materials and construction

Primary material: Lead
Manufacture method: Struck or hammered
Completeness: Incomplete

Spatial metadata

Region: South East (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Kent (County)
District: Canterbury (District)
Parish or ward: Fordwich (Civil Parish)

Spatial coordinates

4 Figure: TR1759
Four figure Latitude: 51.2887731
Four figure longitude: 1.11071969
1:25K map: TR1759
1:10K map: TR15NE
Grid reference source: GPS (from the finder)
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 1 metre square.

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: KENT
Created: About one year ago
Updated: About one year ago

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