NMGW-5EE5EE: Roman leaded copper alloy penannular brooch

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BROOCH

Unique ID: NMGW-5EE5EE

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

Roman leaded copper alloy penannular brooch of Fowler's (1960) Type B (or 'omega' / Iberian type) and of sub-type B3, probably of c. mid-1st to early-2nd century AD date
The brooch is complete with frame and pin, although it is possible that the pin is secondary (with a width of 42.0mm, a frame height of 39.9mm and a weight of 17.1g). The hoop is of faceted quadrilateral section, with a central ridge on face (with a width of 5.0mm to 5.7mm and a thickness of 4.7mm). There is evidence of differential wear and corrosion on the apex of the hoop, caused by the pin-loop. The rear of the hoop is flat. There is no applied decoration discernible on the hoop. As the central ridge on the hoop approaches the cast terminals, it curves to the interior to suggest a C-scroll and defines the thinner 'droplet' form of each terminal (3.5mm thick). The wider end of each droplet is decorated with an incised ring motif. On the Underside of each droplet is a downward projecting C-shaped moulding, producing the characteristic 'omega' shape of the brooch (giving a terminal depth of 14.4mm and length of 29.6mm). The terminal may be stylised opposing beasts' heads. The rear of the terminals are flat and undecorated. The brooch surface is worn and corroded with brown corrosion, possibly indicating a comparatively high lead content in the copper alloy. The pin (42.2mm long) is loosely wrapped around the frame. The flat-sectioned loop has two-coils around the frame (with a maximum loop diameter of 12.4mm, a width of 5.4mm). Below the loop, the pin is circular-sectioned (2.1mm diameter), gradually narrowing to the point and is now concave. The pin has a golden-brown surface, contrasting with the frame.

Notes:

The brooch frame can be paralleled with examples found at Caerwent, Monmouthshire (Fowler 1963, Fig. 4, No 10) and in Ogof-Yr-Esgyrn, Powys (Boon, 1968, p 45-46, fig 10.6), which has slightly more elaborate returned terminals. Both these examples also have solid cast terminals, rather than a bent hoop. The Ogof-Yr-Esgryn example has similar eye decoration within a triangle at the terminals and a faceted notched hoop. Boon states that the type is rare in Britain and both Fowler and Boon see the type as of Iberian derivation (from the 2nd century BC) and outline the difficulty of dating the type. British examples of Type B brooches from Hod Hill and Colchester are early, from c. mid-1st to early-2nd century AD. A smaller, less elaborate Type B3 penannular brooch was also recovered from Swansea Bay and recorded in 2012 and a further example was recorded from Wenvoe, Vale of Glamorgan .

Class: Type B
Sub class: sub-type B3

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder

Chronology

Broad period: ROMAN
Period from: ROMAN
Period to: ROMAN
Date from: Circa AD 50
Date to: Circa AD 120

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 1
Length: 29.6 mm
Height: 39.9 mm
Width: 42 mm
Thickness: 4.7 mm
Weight: 17.1 g
Diameter: 12.4 mm

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Ms Eirini Anagnostou
Identified by: Mr Mark Lodwick

Other reference numbers

Other reference: NMWPA 2016.9.1

Materials and construction

Primary material: Copper alloy
Manufacture method: Cast
Completeness: Complete

Spatial metadata

Region: Wales (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Swansea (Unitary Authority)
District: Swansea (Unitary Authority)

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: NMGW
Created: About one year ago
Updated: About one year ago

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