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COIN HOARD

Unique ID: WMID-663957

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

A coin hoard comprising of seventy-seven silver coins, dating from Edward I to Henry VI, dating to the period around AD 1430.

Description: I have examined a group of 77 coins found in September 2004. The cloins are all of silver and all but one are official issues of the kinds of England, and thus will be of the traditional sterling standard, 92.5% fine metal.The one non-English coin is continental sterling imitation, one of many issued by rulers to resemble English pennies of the late 13th to mid 14th century: Valeran of Ligny's output was probably from the 1310s-20s, and this coin will also be substantially of fine silver, if not precisely the sterling standard. Many of these imitations entered English currency and a worn example such as this would proabbly have been indistinguishable from native issues: this coin will therefore be treated as a penny in the discussion below.

The coins range in date from the late 13th century, under Edward I, to the Rosette Mascle issues of King Henry VI, issued 1427-30. In terms of denominations there are 41 pennies, 8 halfgroats and 27 groats (worth fourpence), so a degree of selection can be assumed, since the group has no gold issues present, nor are any of the lowest denominations, halfpennies and farthings. The groat and halfgroat were the largest silver coins then produced and were added to the English currency in 1351, along with gold coins. This sort of date range is not unusual for 15th century coin hoards, since after 1279 medieval England did not experience a wholesale recoinage, and older coin could remain in circulation continuously, although as time passed it increasingly formed a smaller proportion of the currency. In 15th century hoards the older coin is normally very worn and/or clipped, to permit it to survive in currency after the reduction of the weight standard of the coinage implemented in 1412. The proportions and condition of the older coin in this find is entirely consistent with this pattern.

The find is dominated by new coins of Henry VI, these 33 coins being the largest group for the monarchs represented in the group and also, because they are dominated by the 26 groats, they represent 70% of the find's entire face value, which is 13 shillings and twopence, a sum probably equivalent to £100 or more in modern terms. The Henry VI coins are dominated by issues of the Calais mint, which is typical of the 1420s-30s. The latest coins present are from the Rosette Mascle period, which concluded in 1430. Since the next issue, Pinecone Mascle, is not at all rare, it is likely that the group was deposited between 1427 and no later than 1430/1431.

The coins are all of good silver. They have all the appearance of a group of material extracted, with some selection of denominations, from the English currency of 1420s-30s. In my opinion the find fully meets the criteria of Treasure according to the terms of the Act.

Edward I (1272-1307) and Edward II (1307-27)
Pennies:
Bristol (3c), 1;
Canterbury (4a-c, 1; 10cf, 1), 2;
London (3?, 1; 11a, 1; 14, 1), 3;
Edward I, Irish coinage
Penny: Waterford Sterling imitations Valéran of Ligny (1304-53)
Edward III Third ('Florin') Coinage (1344-51):
Pennies:
London (2), 1;
York, 1
Fourth Coinage (1351-77)
Groat: London (pre-Treaty, E), 1
Halfgroats: London (pre-Treaty, C, 3; D, 1; Ga, 1; Gf, 1), 6
Pennies: London (post-Treaty, 1; uncertain, 1), 2;
York (pre-Treaty, E, 1; post-Treaty, 1; uncertain, 1), 3
Richard II (1377-99)
Penny:
York (local dies), 1
Uncertain pennies, mid to late 14th century, 6
Henry V (1413-22)
Halfgroat: London (Cb), 1
Pennies:York (C, 3; D, 1; G, 4; uncertain, 2), 10
Henry VI (1422-61) Annulet issue (1422-7)
Groats: Calais, 19
Pennies:
London, 1;
Calais, 4
Rosette Mascle issue (1427-30)
Groats: Calais, 7
Halfgroat:
Calais, 1
Penny:
Calais, 1

Dr. B.J. Cook
Curator of Medieval and Early Modern Coinage
Department of Coins and Medals
British Museum
22 February 2005

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder after being disclaimed as Treasure

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2004T332

Chronology

Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Period to: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Circa AD 1427
Date to: Circa AD 1431

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 77

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Sunday 5th September 2004 - Sunday 5th September 2004

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Miss Teresa Gilmore
Identified by: Dr Barrie Cook

Other reference numbers

Treasure case number: 2004T332

Materials and construction

Primary material: Silver
Manufacture method: Struck or hammered
Completeness: Complete

Spatial metadata

Region: West Midlands (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Staffordshire (County)
District: Staffordshire Moorlands (District)
To be known as: Ilam

Spatial coordinates


Grid reference source: GPS (from the finder)
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 100 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Metal detector
Discovery circumstances: Found whilst out searching with a metal detector
General landuse: Cultivated land
Specific landuse: Minimal cultivation

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: WMID
Created: About one year ago
Updated: About one year ago

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