NMS-5E3BC2: Middle to Late Bronze Age Flange Twisted Torc

Rights Holder: The Portable Antiquities Scheme
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Unique ID: NMS-5E3BC2

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

Circumstances: Found whilst digging trenches through a paddock for gas pipes. No further objects were recovered at the time of discovery, however, the finder states that in recent years the owners have had substantial amounts of topsoil added to level the site.

Description: Complete gold Middle Bronze Age four flange twisted bar torc. The main bar has been cut longitudinally to create an X-shaped cross-section and has been twisted relatively evenly. The hoop has been slightly distorted and a number of the crests of the twist have been bent or otherwise damaged. At either end of the twisted section is a "trumpet" shaped terminal. These appear to be integrally cast and have a circular cross-section. At each terminal the bar tapers just before the twisted flange ends. Each terminal then doubles back and gradually expands along its length. Both of the flat ends have a lozenge-shaped dimple caused as a by-product of manufacture. One dimple is more pronounced than the other.

Dimensions: Maximum extant dimension: c. 155mm, length of terminal returns: 41.4mm & 40.8mm, maximum diameter of terminals: 4.4mm & 4.4mm, minimum diameter of terminals: 3.0 & 2.6mm, maximum diameter of twisted band: 6.2mm, weight: 56g.

Date: c. 1300 - 1100 BC

Discussion: Flange twisted torcs in both gold and copper alloy can be dated typologically to the later part of the Taunton (c.1400-1250 BC) and more probably the Penard (c. 1300-1150 BC), metalwork phases of the Middle Bronze Age (Roberts 2007). Gold flange twisted torcs finds are concentrated in East Anglia, southwest and southeast England (Roberts, 2007). A complete example is currently held by Norwich Castle Museum (accession no. NWHCM : 1947.5.1). Another, found at Ashill, Norfolk, is held by the British Museum (museum no. 1866,1201.1).

The object contains a minimum of 10% precious metal and is over 300 years old. Consequently, in terms of both age and precious metal content, it qualifies as Treasure under the stipulations of the Treasure Act 1996.

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Submitted for consideration as Treasure

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2017T463


Broad period: BRONZE AGE
Subperiod from: Middle
Period from: BRONZE AGE
Subperiod to: Middle
Period to: BRONZE AGE
Date from: Circa 1300 BC
Date to: Circa 1100 BC

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 1
Thickness: 6.2 mm
Weight: 56 g

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Monday 1st May 2017 - Monday 1st May 2017

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Miss Julie Shoemark
Identified by: Miss Julie Shoemark
Secondary identifier: Mr Jason Gibbons

Other reference numbers

SMR reference number: 62134
Other reference: IND12052017DW
Treasure case number: 2017T463

Materials and construction

Primary material: Gold
Completeness: Complete

Spatial metadata

Region: Eastern (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Norfolk (County)
District: Breckland (District)
Parish or ward: Great Dunham (Civil Parish)

Spatial coordinates

4 Figure: TF8714
Four figure Latitude: 52.69139127
Four figure longitude: 0.76553273
1:25K map: TF8714
1:10K map: TF81SE
Grid reference source: From finder
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 10 metre square.

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: NMS
Created: About one year ago
Updated: 6 months ago

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