DENO-BBE206: Post-medieval coin hoard: Coin 1: Cromford dollar

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:


Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

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COIN HOARD

Unique ID: DENO-BBE206

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

A post-medieval coin hoard of three countermarked silver Spanish 8 Reales ("dollars") and four silver shillings.

1: Silver Spanish American 8 Reales ("dollar") of Charles IIII of Spain. Mexico City mint. Obverse: laureate bust right; CAROLUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1802. Countermarked on bust with circular stamp inscribed 'Cromford Derbyshire 4|9'. Reverse: Spanish arms between two pillars; HISPAN ET IND REX M(with O above) 8R F T. 40.6mm in diameter. 26.68g.

2: Silver Spanish American 8 Reales ("dollar") of Charles IIII of Spain. Peru (Lima) mint. Obverse: laureate bust right; CAROLUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1802. Countermarked on bust with circular stamp inscribed 'Cromford Derbyshire 4|9'. Reverse: Spanish arms between two pillars; HISPAN ET IND REX ME (ligated) 8R I J. 40.0mm in diameter. 26.78g.

3: Silver Spanish American 8 Reales ("dollar") of Charles IIII of Spain. Mexico City mint. Obverse: laureate bust right; CAROLUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1801. Countermarked infront of bust with 'S' and on bust with circular stamp inscribed 'Cromford Derbyshire 4|9'. Reverse: Spanish arms between two pillars; HISPAN ET IND REX M(with O above) R F T. 40.0mm in diameter. 26.34g.

4. Silver shilling of uncertain monarch. Obverse: indiscernible; illegible. Countermarked 'BURNSIDE'. Reverse: indiscernible; illegible, Countermarked three times: 'J.A'; possible crowned elaborate 'JJ'; 'WW' (180 degrees to other stamps). Coin has been bent slightly into S-shape. Such a bend is associated with love tokens or lucky coins. 24.1mm in diameter. 2.88g.

5. Incomplete silver shilling of uncertain monarch. Obverse: indiscernible; illegible. Reverse: indiscernible; illegible, Coin has been bent slightly into S-shape. Such a bend is associated with love tokens or lucky coins. 25.1mm in diameter. 3.43g.

6. Silver shilling of uncertain king (either William III, George I or George III). Obverse: laureate bust right; illegible. Reverse: indiscernible; illegible. 25.2mm in diameter. 4.82g.

7. Silver shilling of uncertain monarch. Obverse: indiscernible; illegible. Reverse: indiscernible; illegible. 24.4mm in diameter. 3.83g.

Between 1751 and 1816, very few silver coins were minted in Britain due to the financial effects of fighting foreign wars. There was a lack of silver available for minting coins, but many silver Spanish American dollars that had been taken from raided Spanish ships. Royal Mint rules at the time prevented the mint from purchasing silver at a price higher than 5s 2d per ounce, a price much lower that the value of silver, and therefore the Royal Mint could not use these dollars to make new British money. As a result, private tradesmen began stamping Spanish American dollars themselves for use as tokens to conduct trade and pay their workers. These three countermarked Spanish American dollars are known as 'Cromford Dollars'. Cromford mill was built by Richard Arkwright to house his waterpowered cotton spinning machinery. Each Cromford token was issued as a week's wage for one of the workers. The 4|9 on each token represents the token's value of 4 shillings and 9 pence and indicate that these tokens were issued before 1810. Tokens issued after 1810 were stamped or restamped with 5|- as the value of silver bullion had increased. The reverse of each of these Cromford dollars has been defaced so that the Spanish arms are partially erased.

http://www.numsoc.net/countermarks.html

http://www.britnumsoc.org/publications/Digital%20BNJ/pdfs/1955_BNJ_28_46.pdf

http://www.massonmills.co.uk/News/Wins-Silver-2006.html.php

Notes:

The find consists of 7 coins less than 300 years old but with a substantial precious metal content. The coins were probably deliberately hidden with the intention of recovery and they have no traceable owners or heirs. Consequently, the find constitutes potential Treasure Trove, and therefore constitutes potential Treasure under the Treasure Act 1996.

Find of note status

This has been noted as an interesting find by the recorder.

Subsequent actions

Current location of find: Derby Museum and Art Gallery
Subsequent action after recording: Acquired by museum after being declared Treasure

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2016T795

Chronology

Broad period: POST MEDIEVAL
Period from: POST MEDIEVAL
Period to: POST MEDIEVAL
Date from: Exactly AD 1801
Date to: Exactly AD 1810

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 1

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Sunday 9th October 2016

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Mr Alastair Willis
Identified by: Mr Alastair Willis

Other reference numbers

Other reference: Derby E8431
Treasure case number: 2016T795

Materials and construction

Primary material: Silver
Manufacture method: Milled
Completeness: Complete

Spatial metadata

Region: East Midlands (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Derbyshire (County)
District: Amber Valley (District)
To be known as: Idridgehay

Spatial coordinates


Grid reference source: Generated from computer mapping software
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 10 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Metal detector
Current location: Derby Museum and Art Gallery
General landuse: Grassland, Heathland
Specific landuse: Disturbed

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: DENO
Created: About one year ago
Updated: 6 months ago

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