DENO-E393A1: Bronze Age Hoard

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
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Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

Rights Holder: Derby Museums Trust
CC License:

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HOARD

Unique ID: DENO-E393A1

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

Treasure Case: 2015 T531

Circumstances: Found while searching with a metal detector scattered over an area of 10 - 20 metres squared.

Dating: Early to Late Bronze Age

Description

Fragments of a flanged flat axe, two socketed axes, five pieces of casting waste (including a notable pouring cup), and an unidentified object with ancient patina of possible Bronze Age date.

1. Fragment of flat axe. The surfaces of the axe are very badly eroded, with pitting across the surfaces and only some patches of the original surfaces left. The axe is broken and the break appears ancient. The axe blade is notably short and the sides of the blade are flanged. This axe type is difficult to parallel but some comparison can be made with Continental style and 'intrusive' axes (Needham 1980, figs. 78, 93 & 125).

Dimensions: Length: 69mm; Width (blade): 45mm; Width (broken end): 28mm; Thickness (max.): 10mm; Weight: 124.03g

Dating: Early Bronze Age

2. Fragment of socketed axe. The surfaces of the axe are very badly eroded, with pitting across the surfaces and only some patches of the original surfaces left. The axe is broken and the break appears ancient. The fragment comprises of the blade and lower body. The casting seams have been trimmed but are still visible on both top and bottom. It is not possible to place the axe within a typological scheme owing to its condition.

Dimensions: Length: 63.5mm; Width (blade): 50mm; Weight: 130.13g

Dating: Late Bronze Age

3. Fragment of socketed axe. The surfaces of the axe are very badly eroded, with pitting across the surfaces and only some patches of the original surfaces left. The axe is broken and the break appears ancient. The fragment comprises of the blade and a short length of the body.

Dimensions: Length: 28; Width (blade): 40mm; Weight 52.45g

Dating: Late Bronze Age

4. Casting waste (pouring cup). The form of this pouring cup suggests it is from a clay or sand mould.

Dimensions: 39mm (max.) by 22mm (max.); Weight: 44.76g

Dating: Bronze Age

5. Casting waste (amorphous).

Dimensions: 38mm (max.) by 25mm (max.) by 12mm (max.); Weight: 23.68g

Dating: Bronze Age

6. Casting waste (amorphous).

Dimensions: 28mm (max.) by 21mm (max.) by 6mm (max.); Weight: 13.53g

Dating: Bronze Age

7. Casting waste (amorphous).

Dimensions: 26mm (max.) by 20 mm (max.) by 3mm (max.); Weight: 7.15g

Dating: Bronze Age

8. Casting waste (amorphous).

Dimensions: 16mm (max.) by 12mm (max.) by 7mm (max.); Weight: 5.15g

Dating: Bronze Age

9. Unidentified object. This object cannot be identified as certainly of Bronze Age date but the patina appears ancient.

Dimensions: 47mm (max.) by 35mm (max.); Thickness: 6.5mm

Dating: Uncertain

Discussion

The objects reported above are of at least two different dates. There is an Early Bronze Age axehead fragment (No. 1) and two Late Bronze Age socketed axehead fragments (Nos. 2-3), along with several pieces of so-called casting waste that could be of Early to Late Bronze Age date (but are typically found in association with objects of Late date) (Nos. 4-8). It cannot be certain that the objects described were ever intentionally deposited together (and care should be taken in assuming they were as several deposits may be represented) but given the proximity of the finds and likelihood of later disturbance by agricultural activity this possibility cannot be ruled out. Multi-period hoards are known but are rare: Yattendon (Berkshire) (Evans 1878), Danebury (Hampshire) (Britton et al. 1991, 335-40; Hingley 2009, 163-4), 'Batheaston', Somerset (Hingley 2009, 162), Salisbury, Wiltshire (Stead 1998), and Wardour (Wilsthire) (Portable Antiquities Scheme: WILT-E8DA70).

Conclusion

On the balance of probabilities, the finds detailed above constitute a find of two or more objects of prehistoric metalwork and therefore qualify as Treasure under the stipulations of the Treasure Act 1996 (Designation Order 2002).

Bibliography

Britton, D., O'Connor, B., & Cunliffe, B. 1984. The late Bronze Age hoard. In Cunliffe, B. (ed) Danebury: An Iron age hillfort in Hampshire. The excavations 1969-1978: the finds. Council for British Archaeology, Research Report No 52b, York: Council for British Archaeology

Evans, J. 1878. A hoard of bronze antiquities found in Berkshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 7, 1878

Hingley, R. 2009. Esoteric Knowledge? Ancient Artefacts from Iron Age Contexts. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 75, 143-65

Needham, S.P. 1980. The Early Bronze Age Axeheads of Central and Southern England. Unpublished PhD thesis submitted to University College, Cardiff

Stead, I. 1998. The Salisbury Hoard. Stroud: Tempus

Neil Wilkin

The British Museum

20.1.17

Subsequent actions

Current location of find: National Civil War Centre - Newark Museum
Subsequent action after recording: Donated to museum after being declared Treasure

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2015T531

Chronology

Broad period: BRONZE AGE
Subperiod from: Early
Period from: BRONZE AGE
Subperiod to: Late
Period to: BRONZE AGE
Date from: Circa 2200 BC
Date to: Circa 800 BC

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 10

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Friday 1st August 2014 - Sunday 31st August 2014

Personal details

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Other reference numbers

Other reference: Derby E8099
Treasure case number: 2015T531
Museum accession number: NEKMS : 2019.3

Materials and construction

Primary material: Copper alloy
Completeness: Fragment

Spatial metadata

Region: East Midlands (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Nottinghamshire (County)
District: Newark and Sherwood (District)
To be known as: Barnby

Spatial coordinates


Grid reference source: From a paper map
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 100 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Metal detector
Current location: National Civil War Centre - Newark Museum
General landuse: Cultivated land

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: DENO
Created: 7 years ago
Updated: 3 years ago

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