FAKL-9900E3: Bowl, enamel decorated

Rights Holder: The Portable Antiquities Scheme
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Rights Holder: The Portable Antiquities Scheme
CC License:

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Unique ID: FAKL-9900E3

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Published Find published

Fragments of a cast copper alloy bowl decorated with champlevé enamel, three fragments survive, one, bearing the remains of the rim, is folded back on itself, all three join, but are distorted, making it impossible to determine the original dimensions of the vessel but it is clear that it was originally globular and small, with a diameter comparable to that of other bowls in the series (see below). Most of the enamel is now missing but the champlevé cells show the decorative scheme. This consisted of a series of 37mm diameter, circular panels set around the circumference. Each of these contained a three armed whirligig, their arms open to contain enamel, these arms are linked to the centre via a hollowed joint. The loss of enamel makes it difficult to resolve the colours used but it appears that the whirligigs were inlaid with mid-blue and light green enamel and each was surrounded by a ring inlaid with red. The round panels appear to have been set touching each other, in pairs. Between each pair of roundels were three, 9mm long, horizontal bars of enamel inlay, two green separated by a line of red. Above and below the horizontal lines were pairs of lung-like motifs inlaid with red and surrounded by green, and panels containing what appear to be pairs of opposed comma motifs. The vessel's rim bears an external beading 3.8mm wide x 2.9mm thick. Below this is a 4.2mm wide, plain bandm separating the rim from the decorated zone. The general metal section is 2.2/1.5mm thick. All of the fractures are old suggesting that the damage is not recent, the surfaces are corroded with some loss of patination. This vessel the third of example of its kind to be recorded by the PAS, the first, and best known is the 'Staffordshire Moorlands pan' (WMID-3FE965) which bears, in addition to its 'Celtic' decoration, a list of some of Roman forts along Hadrian's Wall. A further example was found at Winterton, North Lincolnshire (NLM-F50443) some 15km to the east of Crowle. The Winterton bowl bears a geometric design consisting of square panels inlaid with champlevé enamel, a feature which it shares with the Rudge cup (Horsley 1732; Henig 1995), although the Winterton find lacks both an inscription and the 'crenulations' seen on the Rudge cup. The decoration on the Crowle Bowl resembles that seen on the Moorlands Pan, in that both are 'celtic' and laid out in circular panels (eight in the case of Staffordshire) however, the decoration on the Moorlands Pan is more fluid than the Crowle find and all panels touch, rather than some being linked by horizontal bars. All four bowls (Crowle, Rudge, Moorlands and Winterton) share the same pallet of enamel colours and have a similar shaped rims and are likely to be products of the same workshop. Enamel decorated vessels were being made at Castleford, South Yorkshire (Cool and Philo, 1998) and, while most of the material produced there bore geometric or leaf designs some 'celtic' designs were being used (Cool and Philo, 1998, 219). An actual vessel fragment for Castleford (No. 474, pp. 98, 219, Fig 95), while bearing leaf-motifs, has some stylistic similarity to the Crowle find. The suggested reconstruction is based on the Winterton bowl which is like to have similar proportions to the Crowle find.

Length of surviving fragments 107.0mm, depth 41.0mm. The Moorlands pan has a circumference of 281.2mm suggesting that around 38% of original circumference of the Crowle bowl survives. The Winterton bowl weighed 112.63g as against the 27.68g represented by the three Crowle fragments (13.52 + 11.72 + 2.44g) pointing if, as seems likely, the vessels were of similar size, to a 25% survival.

Find of note status

This is a find of note and has been designated: Potential for inclusion in Britannia

Class: Bowl, enamel

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder


Broad period: ROMAN
Subperiod from: Middle
Period from: ROMAN
Date from: Circa AD 100
Date to: Circa AD 200

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 1
Length: 107 mm
Height: 41 mm
Thickness: 2.2 mm
Weight: 27.68 g

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Dr Kevin Leahy
Identified by: Dr Kevin Leahy

Materials and construction

Primary material: Copper alloy
Manufacture method: Cast
Completeness: Fragment
Surface Treatment: Inlaid with enamel

Spatial metadata

Region: Yorkshire and the Humber (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: North Lincolnshire (Unitary Authority)
District: North Lincolnshire (Unitary Authority)
To be known as: Crowle

Spatial coordinates

Grid reference source: From finder
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 100 metre square.

References cited

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: FAKL
Created: 6 years ago
Updated: 6 years ago

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