DUR-5EAB65: Papal bulla- Innocent IV- DUR-5EAB65

Rights Holder: Durham County Council
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BULLA

Unique ID: DUR-5EAB65

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

A Medieval lead Papal bulla of Pope Innocent IV, whose papacy lasted from 1243 to 1254 AD.

The obverse depicts the faces of St Peter and St Paul below the inscription [SPAS]P[E] (SPA = Sanctus Paulus, SPE = Sanctus Petrus), all of which are surrounded by a beaded border, flanking the outside edge of the bulla. St. Paul is seen on the left looking right, with a long pointed beard, and St. Peter is on the right facing left, with a rounded face and beard and hair formed from pellets. Each is within a C or backwards-C beaded border, joined to the main. This follows a set formula, not all of the detail is visible on this example due to wear

The reverse bears the legend INNO/CENTIVS/.PP.IIII. , within a beaded border. There is an omega above the 'PP', which is an abbreviation of pastor pastorum - meaning shepherd of the shepherds. The surface of the bulla has a well developed cream coloured patination.

Notes:

Papal bullae were used as seals on official papal documents sent out from Rome (during the schism, Avignon) as a means of authentication. Tim Pestell has stated on other bulla records: "Papal bulls came as two basic types, according to the contents of the document: Tituli, or "Letters of Grace", essentially granted or confirmed rights, conferred benefices or promulgated statutes. They generally had their lead bullae attached with cords of silk. Mandamenta, or "Letters of Justice" were mandates that conveyed papal orders, prohibitions or injunctions, and had their bullae attached by hemp threads". They may have also had a secondary use as an amulet.

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder

Chronology

Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Period to: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Circa AD 1243
Date to: Circa AD 1254

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 1
Thickness: 4.21 mm
Weight: 38.5 g
Diameter: 37.52 mm

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Miss Frances McIntosh
Identified by: Miss Frances McIntosh

Materials and construction

Primary material: Lead
Manufacture method: Cast
Completeness: Complete

Spatial metadata

Region: Yorkshire and the Humber (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: East Riding of Yorkshire (Unitary Authority)
District: East Riding of Yorkshire (Unitary Authority)
Parish or ward: Wetwang (Civil Parish)

Spatial coordinates

4 Figure: SE9359
Four figure Latitude: 54.018636
Four figure longitude: -0.58208
1:25K map: SE9359
1:10K map: SE95NW
Grid reference source: Centred on parish
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 1000 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Metal detector
General landuse: Cultivated land
Specific landuse: Character undetermined

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: DUR
Created: 8 years ago
Updated: 8 years ago

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