ESS-AB0B30: 2009 T432 Medieval coin hoard

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Unique ID: ESS-AB0B30

Object type certainty: Certain
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TREASURE CASE 2009 T432 Medieval Coin Hoard

General content:519 medieval coins: The great majority of the coins are official issues of the kings of England, five of gold and 487 of silver. Also present are a small number of pennies of King Edward I's Irish coinage, silver coins of the kings of Scots (only pennies), a handful of continental sterlings and two counterfeits (all penny equivalents) and one other foreign coin, a probable issue of the count of Flanders. The gold coins will be the established English standard of over 23 carats fine (c. 95% gold) and the bulk of the silver will be of the sterling standard, over 90% fine metal.

Nature of the find: The dates of the coins range from Edward I's reign, following the last wholesale recoinage of medieval England in 1279/80, to the last period of coinage of Edward III, the so-called Post-Treaty Period of his Fourth Coinage, i.e. 1369-77. There are no coins in the name of Edward III's successor, Richard II, who came to the throne in 1377. Between 1280 and 1377 several major factors had affected the English coinage, with the addition of gold coins from 1344 (the noble of 80 pence and its half and quarter) and from 1351 of large silver denominations (the groat of four-pence and the half-groat of two-pence). The weight of the silver coinage also changed, so older coins had to be of lower weight, through clipping or wear, to survive in currency.

This find contains almost the whole range of the English currency from the later 14th century. Two of the three gold denominations are present, with the half-noble absent, and only missing from the silver denominations are the fractional coins, the halfpenny and farthing, which rarely occur in late medieval hoards. Most of the non-English coins are penny equivalents of types that are known to have formed a small part of the 14th century English currency. In terms of content, a very similar hoard (462 silver coins, with pennies dominant, though lacking any gold component) was found at Grantham in Lincolnshire in 1994.

The intact English coins present consist of: 1 noble; 4 quarter nobles; 51 groats; 73 half-groats; and 362 pennies. Their face value in the 14th century was £3 11s.6d. (Adding in the foreign coins as equivalent to English pennies, plus the fragmentary English coins, would add just over 2 shillings to this total.)

There is no question that the coins would all have circulated together in the later 14th century. Pennies of Edward I and I remained an important element in the English currency into the early 15th century, with some survivals occurring as late as hoards deposited under Henry VII in the 1480s. This accumulation of coins looks to have been deposited either at the end of Edward III's reign or during the early years of Richard II, in the years to either side of 1380 and virtually certainly before 1384.

Pottery: Parts of two pottery vessels were found with the coins from the hoard. A third collection of small, residual sherds is probably unrelated to the hoard.

1. Cheam whiteware biconical drinking jug. Produced at Cheam, Surrey. Small biconical jug with a rod handle. The base, rod handle and part of the rim survive. The jug is made in the characteristic white-firing clay of the Cheam pottery industry, resulting in a pale buff/orange surface colour, and has a patchy area or 'bib' of green copper lead glaze on the upper part. The method of attachment of the lower end of the handle is characteristic of the small jugs made by Cheam potters: the wall of the pot was pierced with a pointed tool, usually three or four times, resulting in three circular holes, over which the end of the handle was pressed outside, leaving the holes visible on the inside surface. Cheam pottery was exported to London in large quantities, and is also found in Essex. The Cheam whiteware biconical jug is characteristic of late-14th century assemblages, and is certainly consistent with the date of c1380 for the hoard. Base diameter approx. 50mm.

2. Redware jug A fine redware pottery, probably a large jug. The fabric is characteristic of pottery made in Essex at kilns such as Mill Green or Rayleigh (further analysis might identify the source). As only base and wall sherds survive, it is difficult to identify the specific form of the vessel. Probably dates to the late medieval period, between the late 14th and late 15th century.

The Cheam whiteware jug is perhaps more likely to have been the hoard container, although both vessels are consistent with the date given to the hoard.

Treasure implications: The coins found in the area are of good gold or silver content and would have been deposited on one occasion in the later 14th century. That they fulfil the criteria of Treasure, according to the terms of the Act. The Cheam whiteware biconical drinking jug and Redware jug appear to be associated with the coins, and as such qualify as Treasure.

Dr Barrie J Cook Curator of Medieval and Early Modern Coinage, British Museum.

Beverley Nenk Curator of Medieval Ceramics Department, British Museum

17 November 2010


Catalogue EDWARD I-II Pennies Class 2 (1280) 1. 2a London 2. 2b Bristol 3. Canterbury 4. London Class 3 (1280-1281) 5. 3b York 6. 3c Bristol 7-9. London 10. 3d London 11. 3e Durham 12. 3f London 13. 3g Bristol 14-15. Canterbury 16. Lincoln 17-20. London Class 4 (1282-1289) 21. 4a Canterbury 22. 4b London 23-4. 4c Canterbury 25. 4d Canterbury 26. London 27. 4e London Class 5 (1289-1291) 28. 5b Canterbury Class 9 (c. 1299 to end 1300/early 1301) 29. 9a1 London 30-3. 9b1 Canterbury 34. Durham 35-7. London 38. Newcastle 39. York (royal) 40-1. 9b2 London Class 10ab (1301- c. mid 1305) 42. 10ab2/9 London 43-4. 10ab3(b)/9 London 45. 10ab3(b) Newcastle 46. 10ab4 London 47-8. 10ab5(late) Canterbury 49. London Class 10cf (c.mid 1305- c. late 1310) 50. 10cf1 London 51-2. 10cf2(a) Canterbury 53-5. Canterbury Mayfield 56. Durham Mayfield, Moline 57. London Mayfield 58. 10cf2(b) Canterbury 59. Durham 60-4. London 65. 10cf3 Canterbury Mayfield 66-7. 10cf3(a1) Canterbury 68. 10cf3(a2) London 69. 10cf3(a3) Durham 70. 10cf3(b1) Canterbury 71. Durham 72-5. London 76. 10cf3(b2) Bury St Edmunds 77. Canterbury 78. Durham Moline 79-80. London 81. 10cf5(a1) Bury St Edmunds 82. Canterbury 83-7. London 88-90. 10cf5(a2) Durham Moline 91. London 92-3. 10cf5(b) Canterbury 94. Durham Moline 95. 10cf3-5 Durham Moline 96. 10cf uncertain Canterbury Class 11 (c. late 1310 to c. 1314) 97-8. 11a2EDWA Canterbury 99. EDWA Durham 100. 11b1EDWA Canterbury 101. 11b2EDWAR Canterbury 102. EDWARR Durham Crozier 103. EDWARR London 104. EDWA ? 105. 11b3EDWA Canterbury 106. 11c EDWA Durham Crozier Class 13 (c. 1315-c.1317) 107. 13 Bury St Edmunds 108-9. Durham Crozier Class 14 (c. 1317 to 1320) 110. 14 London Class 15 (1320-c.1333) 111. 15c Bury St Edmunds 112-4. Canterbury 115. Durham plain cross 116. London Edward II, uncertain 117. London 118. Durham EDWARD III (1327-77) Third Coinage (1344-51) 119. C/1 London 120-3. 1/1 London 124-5. 2/1 London 126-7. 3/1 London 128-36 4/1 London 137-41. 4 York 142. N1127/4 Durham Fourth Coinage (1351-77) Gold 143. Noble Pre-Treaty, Series Gg (1356-61) 144. Quarter-noble Pre-Treaty, Series Gf (1356-61) 145. Treaty, Transitional (1361-3) 146. Treaty (1363-9), a (B/6) 147. Treaty (1363-9, b (1) Silver Pre-Treaty Period Series A (1351) 148. Penny Durham Series C (1351-2) 149-57. Groat London 158-89. Half-groat London 190-203. Penny London 204-24. Penny Durham Mules between Series C and D 225-6. Half-groat C/D London 227. Groat D/C London Series D (1352-3) 228-31. Groat London 232. Half-groat London 233. York 234-7. Penny London 238-40. York (royal) 241-5. Durham Series D/E mule 246. Groat York 247. Half-groat London? Series E (1354-5) 248-60. Groat London 261. Groat York 262-8. Half-groat London 269-73. York 274-5. Penny London 276. York (ecclesiastical) 277-85. Durham Series E/F mule 286. Half-groat London Series F (1356) 287-92. Groat London 293-4. Penny London 295. Durham Series F/G mule 296. Groat London 297. Half-groat London Series G 298-301. Groat Ga London 302. Gb London 303. Gf London 304-6. Half-groat Ga London 307-9. Gb London 310-11. Ga/f London 312. Gb/f London 313 Penny Ga London 314-15. Gb London 316. Gc London 317. G York (local dies) 318-22. Gf York 323. Gg/f York 324-5 Gg York 326. Ga Durham 327-9. Gc Durham 330. Gd Durham 331-3. Gf Durham 334.5. Gg Durham 336. Gh/g Durham 337. G (details uncertain) Durham Pre-Treaty (1351-60), details uncertain 338. Penny Durham Treaty Period (1361-9) Treaty A, Transitional (1361-3) 339. Half-groat London 340. Penny London 341-2. York 343. Durham Treaty B (1363-9) 344. Penny B/A mule Durham 345-50. Groat London 351-7 Half-groat London 358-9. Calais 360-2. Penny London 363-412. York 413-25. Durham Post-Treaty period (1369-77) 426. Groat London N1284 427. London N1286 428 London N? 429-31. Half-groat London 432. Penny London N1291 433-41. York N1293 442-70. York N1295 471-82 Durham N1297 Fourth Coinage, Uncertain 483-92. Penny York IRELAND Edward I, Irish coinage (1279-1302) 493. Penny 1b Waterford 494. 4b Dublin 495. 4a-b Dublin SCOTLAND Alexander III (1249-86) Second coinage (c. 1280-) 496. Penny B S5052 497. Ma S5053 John Baliol (1292-6) First Coinage 498. Penny S5065 David II First Coinage, second issue (c. 1333-1357) 499. Penny S5087 500. S5088 Second Coinage (1257-67) 501. Penny A Edinburgh S5114 502. A Edinburgh S5114 ornate A 503. B Edinburgh S5115 505. C Edinburgh S5118 Third Coinage (1367-71) 506. Penny Edinburgh S5129 star behind head 507. Edinburgh S5130 star on sceptre Robert II (1371-90) 508. Penny Edinburgh S5145 509. Perth S5150 star on sceptre Continental sterlings Gaucher de Ch√Ętillon (1313-22) 510. Mayhew 234 511. Mayhew 234 COMSPORC 512. Mayhew 374 EDWREA Flanders Louis I de Nevers (1322-46) 513. Gaillard 203 Counterfeits 514. 'Edward II' 'London' 515. 'Edward III' 'London' Fragments 516-19. Fragments of English pennies Dr Barrie J Cook Curator of Medieval and Early Modern Coinage Department of Coins and Medals British Museum

10 November 2010

Subsequent actions

Subsequent action after recording: Declared Treasure but returned to Finder as Museum unable to acquire

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2009T423


Broad period: MEDIEVAL
Period from: MEDIEVAL
Date from: Circa AD 1384

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 519

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Sunday 9th August 2009

Personal details

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Other reference numbers

Other reference: OEF 5820 / P&E 4838
Treasure case number: 2009T423

Materials and construction

Primary material: Silver
Secondary material: Gold
Manufacture method: Struck or hammered

Spatial metadata

Region: Eastern (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Thurrock (Unitary Authority)
District: Thurrock (Unitary Authority)
To be known as: Corringham Area

Spatial coordinates

Grid reference source: From finder
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 100 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Metal detector
General landuse: Cultivated land
Specific landuse: Character undetermined

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: ESS
Created: 12 years ago
Updated: 8 years ago

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