ESS-356856: Late Bronze Age hoard with complete and fragmentary copper ingots

Rights Holder: Colchester Museums
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Rights Holder: Colchester Museums
CC License:

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Unique ID: ESS-356856

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Awaiting validation Find awaiting validation

A late Bronze Age hoard. No scientific analysis of the finds has been undertaken but it is clear that the artefacts (numbers 1-9) are bronze. The remaining items are complete or fragmentary copper ingots created by smelting copper ores and allowing the molten metal to solidify in the rounded base of the furnace.

1. Socketed axe blade fragment

2. Complete South-eastern socketed axe (Schmidt & Burgess,1981, The Axes of Scotland and Northern England (Prähistorische Bronzefunde 9.7) Munich, page 212).

3. Complete South-eastern socketed axe

4. Complete South-eastern socketed axe

5. Complete South-eastern socketed axe, variant Shoebury (op. cit., 213-14)

6. Complete South-eastern socketed axe, variant Bilton (ibid.,214)

7. End-winged axe

8-9 Socketed axe blade fragments

10-12 Complete copper bun-shaped ingot

13-67 Copper ingot fragments

The South-eastern socketed axes in the hoard are typical of the Ewart Park phase of the late Bronze Age, dated c.1020-800 BC (Needham et al. 1998 'An independent chronology for British Bronze Age metalwork: the results of the Oxford radiocarbon accelerator programme' Archaeological Journal, 154 for 1997, page 98).


This hoard was declared treasure under the stipulations of the ammendment to the Treasure Act (2000). It has been acquired by Colchester Museums.

Subsequent actions

Current location of find: Colchester Museums
Subsequent action after recording: Returned to finder

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2004T116


Broad period: BRONZE AGE
Subperiod from: Early
Period from: BRONZE AGE
Date from: Circa 1020 BC
Date to: 800 BC

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 67

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Monday 22nd March 2004

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Caroline McDonald
Identified by: Dr Paul Sealey

Other reference numbers

Other reference: Treasure Case 2004 T116
Treasure case number: 2004T116
Museum accession number: Colchester Museums 2006.84

Materials and construction

Primary material: Copper alloy
Manufacture method: Cast

Spatial metadata

Region: Eastern (European Region)
County or Unitary authority: Essex (County)
District: Tendring (District)
To be known as: East of Colchester

Spatial coordinates

Grid reference source: From a paper map
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 10 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Metal detector
Discovery circumstances: An undisturbed hoard, dug out in its entirety from beneath ploughsoil . No records of excavation taken. A second finder, Linda Cook, found a single axe included in the hoard.
Current location: Colchester Museums
General landuse: Cultivated land

References cited

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Timeline of associated dates

Audit data

Recording Institution: ESS
Created: 12 years ago
Updated: 7 years ago

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