Meet Rutland’s ‘Flintstones’

Ellie Cooper, Museum Intern shares her love of Prehistory.

Prior to my role as a Collections and Interpretation Intern at Rutland County Museum I did not know much about Rutland. Admittedly, I presumed it was part of Leicestershire. Now understanding it’s the smallest county in England and given its rich history, I thought it would be great to share what I’m learning through a blog. My interests lie heavily with the Old Stone Age and so I will begin here with the Palaeolithic. This is the earliest prehistoric period — think before iron, before bronze, before farming and permanent settlements. Importantly, this was a time when people lived off the land, utilising natural resources from their environment – making stone tools much like The Flintstones!

It’s worth bearing in mind that compared to other counties, little is known about Rutland’s Palaeolithic: Rutland has no caves which make ideal preservation areas for archaeology to last the centuries.

Ancient humans occupied southern Britain intermittently from nearly 1 million years ago (800,000 years)! Though not like us, they were actually quite close to ‘becoming’ human. Living in Rutland was impossible until 130,000 years ago as a huge ice sheet covered the county before then. Rutland’s earliest evidence for ‘human’ occupation comes from [the more recent] Upper Palaeolithic [roughly between 50,000-10,000 years ago]. This was a time when modern humans made it to Britain over the ‘land bridge’ that connected us to the continent – a time when the climate warmed.

Here are some bullet points to help you get your head around the dates; the gaps are during really, really cold times when Britain was un-inhabitable during parts of the ‘Ice Age’.

Period 1 (950,000 – 450,000 years ago): Cromerian and Intra-Anglian

Period 2 (450,000 – 250,000 years ago) Pre-Levallois

Period 3 (250,000 – 150,000 years ago) Levallois

Period 4 (60,000 – 40,000 years ago) Mousterian [Neanderthals]

Period 5a (40,000 – 27,000 years ago) Early Upper Palaeolithic [Modern Humans]

Period 5b: (13,000 – 9,500 BC) Late Upper Palaeolithic

Rutland’s early Upper Palaeolithic site: GLASTON

In 2000, archaeologists unearthed Stone Age animal bones and flints from Glaston. Finding a particular spear tip (flint leaf point) provided the find’s early Upper Palaeolithic date: tools of this type date in the lab to around 30,000 years old. This was a time when Rutland’s inhabitants likely included 2 species of human: us and Neanderthals. This makes it really hard to determine who the maker of this tool was!

Here, the treeless landscape allowed herds of herbivorous animals to roam. Excitingly Rutland County Museum contains fossils of woolly rhino, bison, horse, reindeer and woolly mammoth. Our hunter-gatherer ancestors did not however live an easy life with spotted hyena, cave lions, wolves, and cave bears around. I’m yet to spot these in the stores.

Ice Age fossils in Rutland County’s Museum stores

Glaston produced few flint tools but the ones it did were fresh – they hadn’t be used many times before. It makes sense then that it’s recognised as a temporary hunting camp; a place where people on the move would have hunted and consumed meat which we know was horse! The bones tell us that they were extracting their very nutritious bone marrow too – I’m yet to try it but keep spotting it in supermarkets.

Hyena also inhabited the site before or after the people left: they dug their own dens in the soft sands. The gnawed bones tell us the hyenas too enjoyed a feast. Our ancestors must have interacted with hyenas sometimes – I wonder if these relationships came near to those we’ve recently watched on BBC’s Planet Earth 2?

Rutland’s Terminal Palaeolithic site: LAUNDE

Around 20,000 years later the site of Launde was used as a short term ‘home’ by our ancestors. This wasn’t a cave but an open air place, so it’s possible a shelter was made. The 3000 pieces of ‘fresh’ flint tools / debris among a central hearth suggest it was a place for stone tool manufacturing and maintenance. Nearly all of these tools are left unfinished. Did something happen that made these people leave the site in a hurry? Probably not – Launde’s boulder clay geology would have provided much flint: Flint would have been so easy to come by that tools may have been left behind as more could easily be produced. Launde would have been a great location for overlooking prey across a wide plateau – providing similarly good views for intercepting prey like at Glaston.

Take a trip to Rutland County Museum to see some of the Stone Age for yourself!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thistleton Roman town

Thistleton is a very interesting Roman site in Rutland,  including a long running temple precinct with Iron Age origins, evidence for a small industrious town and a villa site. It was excavated by the Ministry of Works (the forerunner of English Heritage)  in the 1950s to early 1960s, which sadly was not published. Objects from the site can be seen in Rutland County Museum, such as this stunning dog brooch.

Early Medieval beasties

One of my favourite Treasure cases from the county is this stunning silver strap end with an expertly depicted beast LEIC-53D3E4.

It was found in Belton parish in 2012.  The beast fills the frame and is so well depicted you can almost see it writhing. Its lower body is a knotted mass which may include a tail, legs and and other motifs. When new the animal would have been framed in a bed of black niello, most of which is now lost, but small traces can still be seen. Sadly it is incomplete, missing the stylised animal head at its tip. just the top of the rounded ears are now present.

The work is in the Trewhiddle-style and this dates the strap-end to the 9th century AD.

leic-53d3e4