In the past, Nottinghamshire benefited from its position along the River Trent, an important trade route, and also from its natural resources: its fertile arable land in the the South and East and its sources of lead and coal in the hills of the Northwest. As a result, the archaeology of the area is abundant, but due the exploitation of the land for its natural resources many sites have been damaged or destroyed. Important sites in Nottinghamshire include:
- Upper Paleaolithic cave art at Creswell Crags
- Roman camp and settlement at Margidunum.
- Medieval Royal palace (King John’s Palace) at Clipstone.
- Medieval castles, such as Nottingham Castle and Newark Castle.
- Man-made cave network beneath Nottingham Castle.
- Newark, besieged during English Civil War.