Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing and a deer features in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age. Hertfordshire was home to Roman Verulamium and the volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London. Important archaeological sites include:
- The Bronze Age forts of Wilbury Hill Camp and Arbury Banks.
- Devil’s Dyke and Beech Bottom Dyke earthworks constructed during the Iron Age.
- A wealth of Roman sites including the town of Verulamium (modern day St. Albans) with its Roman theatre, Welwyn Roman baths and Six Hills Roman barrow cemetery.
- The Tudor royal palace of Hatfield House and Knebworth House, a former Tudor manor transformed into a Victorian Gothic masterpiece.