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In the late early-medieval period, and early in the medieval period, certain stirrups were composites made of two metals: primarily iron, but with copper-alloy fittings. At the apex of the tread plate at the stirrup’s base, where it connected to the arms, there was either a connecting or applied copper-alloy ‘stirrup terminal’.
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Solder may be found in the recessed reverse of a stirrup terminal for application (Williams 1997, 1). Often decoration can be zoomorphic, in the form of a beast’s head.
Ringerike-style decoration on certain examples helps place them in the early-mid 11th century. Williams (1997, 2) dated other examples slightly later within the 11th century.