Seaxes (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction There is a particular kind of large early-medieval knife known as a ‘seax’ (pronounced ‘sax’; from the Old English word for knife) which …more

Crossbow bolts (‘quarrels’)

Introduction Crossbow bolts (sometimes called ‘quarrels’) are a specific form of arrowhead, with a socketed shaft and relatively narrow, piercing blade.  They can have a variety of cross-sections, generally square, but also triangular and other shapes.  Few examples are recorded by the PAS as they are made of iron; many are known archaeologically from castle …more


Introduction As with the mail which preceded it and continued alongside it, most medieval plate armour is hard to recognize. However, convex copper-alloy knuckle plates from gauntlets are identifiable from their arched profile. They also tend to feature a central protrusion at their tops and would have protected the main finger joint, being riveted to …more

Mace Heads

Introduction As recorded by the PAS, mace heads can either be Neolithic perforated stone objects or knopped copper-alloy terminals from wooden staved maces from the medieval period, not to be confused with earlier openwork staff terminals.  Iron medieval examples tend not to be seen by the PAS. PAS object type to be used Use MACE …more

Powder Flask Nozzles

Introduction Lead powder-flask nozzles are of similar form to powder holder caps, also having two loops for attachment, but have an integral tapering nozzle at their smaller end (top).  They were cast and were probably attached to wooden flasks (Courtney 1988, 2). PAS object type to be used Use POWDER FLASK for these objects Date …more

Powder Holder Caps

Introduction Lead powder holder caps are of similar form to powder flask nozzles, also having two loops for attachment, but with a flat top, without any integral nozzle.  They could either be cast or made from sheet and were probably attached to wooden holders (Courtney 1988, 2).  These capped holders were suspended from a bandolier …more

Shot (including musket balls, cannon balls and bullet moulds)

Introduction This guide covers a variety of types of shot or ammunition, including cannon balls, musket balls and bullets. It has drawn heavily on a guide for FLOs produced by Amy Downes (FLO South and West Yorkshire) and on a guide to recording battlefield assemblages produced by Glenn Foard (Foard 2009 – download the pdf …more