Pilgrim Badges

Introduction As souvenirs, proofs of pilgrimages and to evoke (the protection of) saints, medieval pilgrims purchased metal badges at shrine sites which were then worn, typically on hats.  Other souvenirs included pendants, ampullae, bells and whistles.  Pilgrim badges were imbued with religious power via contact with holy relics at the shrine, turning them into more …more

Monumental Brasses

Introduction Copper-alloy inscriptions were often set into recesses in stone monuments such as gravestones in the form of sheet plates engraved with inscriptions, or as border inscriptions formed of singly cast letters.  Those found were probably removed during the upheavals caused by the Reformation of the early 16th century (Egan 2005, 213).  Letters are earlier, …more

Mace Heads

Introduction As recorded by the PAS, mace heads can either be Neolithic perforated stone objects or knopped copper-alloy terminals from wooden staved maces from the medieval period, not to be confused with earlier openwork staff terminals.  Iron medieval examples tend not to be seen by the PAS. PAS object type to be used Use MACE …more

Staff Terminals

Introduction Staff terminals are openwork copper-alloy mounts thought to be from the ends of late early-medieval to medieval cross-staffs.  This follows a reidentification by Simon Bailey (1994), examples having been published as sword pommels by Ward Perkins (1940, 23; fig. 2, nos 1-2), or mace heads by Cherry (in Blockley 1988, 115, 117; no. 30). …more


Introduction A finger-ring is a circular object worn on the finger, usually just as an ornament. It can be a complete circle or penannular (with open ends); it can be a plain hoop, or have a bezel. Finger-ring designs can be simple and conservative, and so unstratified examples can be very hard to date. PAS …more