Pilgrim Badges

Introduction As souvenirs, proofs of pilgrimages and to evoke (the protection of) saints, medieval pilgrims purchased metal badges at shrine sites which were then worn, typically on hats.  Other souvenirs included pendants, ampullae, bells and whistles.  Pilgrim badges were imbued with religious power via contact with holy relics at the shrine, turning them into more …more

Toys (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction Follow the guidance given in Egan 1988. Don’t use the word ‘petronel’ as it isn’t specific enough. A separate guide may be consulted …more

Apothecaries’ Weights

Introduction Apothecaries’ weights were used to weigh out ingredients in medicines and potions.  The weight-system used was influenced by the Roman system, and the units were called scruples, drachms and ounces.  There were three scruples to the drachm, and eight drachms to the ounce.  Being generally small square or sub-square weights they can be confused …more

Candle holders

Introduction Candle-holders are lighting devices into which candles were fitted. They can be of many shapes, the main division being between the socket type (with a cup into which the candle was inserted) and the pricket type (with a spike onto which the candle was pushed). Sockets were certainly used by the Romans, but are …more

Tweezers (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction There are essentially three types of tweezers, all easy to recognise but hard to date.  First there are those made from sheet, with …more

Forks

Introduction In England, people mostly ate using knives, fingers and spoons prior to the post-medieval period (Leahy and Lewis 2018, 180).  Consequently, the PAS has not recorded many table forks; the majority are iron from the 17th century onwards, although a few copper-alloy early-medieval forks have been recorded.  Post-medieval table forks had two prongs initially, …more

Jettons

Introduction Jettons are metal discs which feature designs and often inscriptions, and which were intended for use as counters for most of the period in which they were produced, that is in the medieval and early post-medieval periods.  Being like a coin in terms of its properties, along with tokens, medals and medallions, jettons are …more