Pilgrim Badges

Introduction As souvenirs, proofs of pilgrimages and to evoke (the protection of) saints, medieval pilgrims purchased metal badges at shrine sites which were then worn, typically on hats.  Other souvenirs included pendants, ampullae, bells and whistles.  Pilgrim badges were imbued with religious power via contact with holy relics at the shrine, turning them into more …more

Toys (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction Follow the guidance given in Egan 1988. Don’t use the word ‘petronel’ as it isn’t specific enough. A separate guide may be consulted …more

Tumbrels

Introduction Tumbrels are two-part balances which were used to check the weights of specific coins.  They were used to identify rogue, underweight coins which would neither tip nor balance the beam/balance-arm (MacGregor 1985, 440). Though they are known from the Byzantine empire in our early early-medieval period (MacGregor 1985, 440-442; fig. 1), we would expect to …more

Seaxes (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction There is a particular kind of large early-medieval knife known as a ‘seax’ (pronounced ‘sax’; from the Old English word for knife) which …more

Stirrup Terminals

Introduction In the late early-medieval period, and early in the medieval period, certain stirrups were composites made of two metals: primarily iron, but with copper-alloy fittings.  At the apex of the tread plate at the stirrup’s base, where it connected to the arms, there was either a connecting or applied copper-alloy ‘stirrup terminal’. PAS object …more

Crossbow bolts (‘quarrels’)

Introduction Crossbow bolts (sometimes called ‘quarrels’) are a specific form of arrowhead, with a socketed shaft and relatively narrow, piercing blade.  They can have a variety of cross-sections, generally square, but also triangular and other shapes.  Few examples are recorded by the PAS as they are made of iron; many are known archaeologically from castle …more

Apothecaries’ Weights

Introduction Apothecaries’ weights were used to weigh out ingredients in medicines and potions.  The weight-system used was influenced by the Roman system, and the units were called scruples, drachms and ounces.  There were three scruples to the drachm, and eight drachms to the ounce.  Being generally small square or sub-square weights they can be confused …more