Button and Loop Fasteners

Introduction Button-and-loop fasteners seem to have been multi-purpose, some perhaps for horse-harness (especially the chunkier earlier ones) and some for human clothing (Worrell 2008, 341).  Their core distribution in lowland Scotland and northern England, has been extended southwards by PAS finds, which are now well known from Yorkshire and the Humber, the East and West …more

How to Record a Coin

Introduction The main difference between recording a coin (or jetton, token etc) and any other object is that for a coin there is an extra form to complete, in addition to the standard finds form, findspot form, and so on. Coins are standard, mass-produced objects, and the numismatic forms are set up to capture this …more

Spindle Whorls

Spindle whorls are perforated weights from wooden drop spindles.  Their weight helped give the spindle momentum in the twisting, or spinning, of fibres into yarn, for later making into textiles.  Various materials were used for spindle whorls: stone (various, often local, types), shale, ceramic (baked clay, reused vessel sherds), animal skeletal material (bone, antler), wood, and lead. …more


Cheekpieces are elements of bridle bits with either a hole through which a bit’s mouthpiece travelled and a loop for attaching the cheek strap of a bridle (in the late early-medieval period), or that were looped through the end-loops of a mouthpiece link of a bit (in the other periods); they were used in pairs at each end of the …more


A finger-ring is a circular object worn on the finger, usually just as an ornament. It can be a complete circle or penannular (with open ends); it can be a plain hoop, or have a bezel. Finger-ring designs can be simple and conservative, and so unstratified examples can be very hard to date. PAS object …more


Introduction Pins are long slender objects, normally tapering or pointed, with an expanded head at one end.  They can be made from a variety of materials, most often metal or bone. They have multiple functions, including as dress fasteners, hair accessories and sewing tools. PAS object type(s) to be used There are a number of …more