Seaxes (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction There is a particular kind of large early-medieval knife known as a ‘seax’ (pronounced ‘sax’; from the Old English word for knife) which …more

Stirrup Terminals

Introduction In the late early-medieval period, and early in the medieval period, certain stirrups were composites made of two metals: primarily iron, but with copper-alloy fittings.  At the apex of the tread plate at the stirrup’s base, where it connected to the arms, there was either a connecting or applied copper-alloy ‘stirrup terminal’. PAS object …more

Tweezers (2001 guide)

Please note that this guide has not been fundamentally changed from the original print version of the Finds Recording Guide (Geake 2001), written when the database contained just 8,800 non-numismatic records. Introduction There are essentially three types of tweezers, all easy to recognise but hard to date.  First there are those made from sheet, with …more

Forks

Introduction In England, people mostly ate using knives, fingers and spoons prior to the post-medieval period (Leahy and Lewis 2018, 180).  Consequently, the PAS has not recorded many table forks; the majority are iron from the 17th century onwards, although a few copper-alloy early-medieval forks have been recorded.  Post-medieval table forks had two prongs initially, …more

Styli, pencils and parchment-prickers

Introduction A stylus (plural styli) is a writing implement used to scratch letters into the wax of a writing tablet. A pencil makes a coloured mark on wood, paper or parchment. A writing tablet was usually made from wood or bone and had slightly recessed panels filled with wax (see, for example, the early-medieval Blythburgh …more

Ceramics (including the Pottery Guide)

The PAS has produced a guide to the recording of pottery vessels which can be downloaded as a pdf here: PAS Pottery Recording Guide. Other ceramic items (clay pipes, ceramic lamps and moulds, kiln furniture and so on) are briefly noted towards the end of the Pottery Recording Guide, with recommendations as to the object …more

Brooches

Introduction A brooch is essentially a pin with something (a plate, a frame etc) joining the two ends, effectively keeping the pin from falling out of the costume. It can be used for fastening things together, or just for decoration. PAS object type to be used Use BROOCH for all brooches, whether they are bow …more

Spurs

Introduction A spur is fixed to the heel of a rider and used for directing the horse and encouraging it forwards. Because they are worn by the human, but only used for riding a horse, they sit awkwardly between dress accessories and horse equipment. Buckles were used for fastening spurs, and at least some can …more