Meet the Finds Liaison Assistant: Phil Hughes

Phil Hughes standing on top of Silbury Hill, Wiltshire, the largest prehistoric mound in Europe. Copyright Phil Hughes. All rights reserved.

Tell us about yourself.

I am a Finds Liaison Assistant for Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, having started this role in December 2017. I am assisting Alastair Willis, the Finds Liaison Officer for Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, for three days per week for six months on a placement as part of my doctoral research, being undertaken at the University of Leicester.

I have an undergraduate degree in Ancient History & Archaeology and a Masters degree in Roman Archaeology. My PhD research investigates Romano-British engagement with the prehistoric past in the East Midlands and the South-East of England with a focus on place and objects. In between completing my Masters degree and embarking on doctoral research, I worked as a field archaeologist excavating rural and urban sites from the Palaeolithic to the Medieval period.

In my spare time I can be found tripping over my own feet whilst attempting to play football, and plotting my next unorthodox soup recipe.

What does your role involve?

My role involves recording archaeological finds brought to the PAS by detectorists and members of the public at finds days and metal detectorist club meetings. In order to do this, I research the objects, photograph them, and produce clear edited images. I input the information about each object on the Portable Antiquities Scheme database so that it can be accessed by members of the public. I also ensure that finds identified as treasure are processed correctly in accordance with the Treasure Act.

What area of history/archaeology are you most interested in?

My main interest has always been in ancient Roman history and the archaeology of the Roman world, with an emphasis on Britain in the Roman Empire, investigating questions of continuity and change. More recently, I have developed an interest in British prehistory, and am able to combine the two as part of my doctoral research by investigating how material things of the past are always present, relevant and acting in a later period.

Why did you start working for the PAS?

Whilst I’ve always loved thinking abstractly about the past, and in trying to dig a giant a hole as quickly as possible, the main allure of archaeology has always resided in small finds for me. Since its inception, the PAS has transformed the information that is available to archaeologists and members of the public, giving us greater knowledge of the distribution of finds and the location of archaeological sites. Consequently, I really wanted to get involved to help cultivate the very positive relationships between these communities that the PAS has fostered and, of course, handle, deal with and think about the objects themselves!

What do you enjoy most about working for the PAS?

Most definitely the opportunity to broaden my horizons about the material culture of the British past. Whilst we all have our own favourite periods of the past and object types, I really enjoy researching objects I know nothing about from time periods I know little about. The other day I was examining and recording a post-medieval jetton, sending me down a welcome and unexpected rabbit hole of new knowledge.

What is the most exciting find from Derbyshire you have recorded so far?

Recently, I recorded a broken late pre-Roman Iron Age lip-shaped harness fitting made of copper alloy with red enamel (DENO-F5C2D6). Harness fittings, attached to chariots drawn by ponies, emerged in the 3rd century BCE and it is remarkable to think about how little these objects have changed through to the present day!

Late Iron Age Harness Fitting, from Foston & Scropton
Late Iron Age Harness Fitting, from Foston & Scropton (DENO-F5C2D6). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. Licence: CC BY.

What is your favourite object recorded on the Portable Antiquities Scheme database from Derbyshire?

Despite being a Romanist, with access to a plethora of metal items including an abundance of coinage, I retain a deep fascination for prehistoric flint tools, a legacy of charismatic teachers and excavation opportunities when I was a field archaeologist! DENO-60CCE4 is a beautiful Neolithic polished axehead unearthed in 2015/2016. It’s striking colouration, with tints of grey, beige and orange-brown transfixes. Whilst stone tool technological industries served functional purposes in prehistory in the hunting and preparation of game, by the Neolithic period the prevalence of polished tools served a clear dual purpose. Whilst polishing would increase the intrinsic strength of the axe, useful for the clearance of woods to make room for sedentary agricultural societies, their highly polished finish indicates social prestige and value as exchangeable objects. Further, they are frequently found in burial mounds indicating they were venerable objects infused with ritual significance.

Neolithic Polished Axehead, from Mort (DENO-60CCE4). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. Licence: CC BY.

Districts of Derbyshire: Erewash

Erewash is a local government district and borough of eastern Derbyshire. It lies to the east of Derby and to the west Nottingham. The borough is home to 112,081 people and the towns of Ikeston and Long Eaton are located here.

Occupation in this area seems to date back to at least the Neolithic. Evidence of this can be seen in finds like this (DENO-37C042). This is an implement of unknown form, it is possibly a chisel, axe or a form of scraper tool. It is made from a fine, dark flint. The flake scars caused by the knapping process is obvious on this example as is the areas of retouch on the outer edge. This example dates from c. 3,500 BC – 2,100 BC.

Neolithic flint implement (DENO-37C042). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA

Objects of the Bronze Age seem to be a rare occurrence in Erewash, given that only two finds have been recorded from the region on the PAS database. One of these is a very unusual object (LEIC-732185). It seems to be a bridle fitting probably dating to the late Bronze Age, but possibly dating to the Early Medieval period. There is a central strap bar formed of two parts, one upper and one lower. A leather strap would have passed between them. This object also serves to highlight how difficult some objects are to identify and date accurately, due to style and rarity.

Late Bronze Age to Early Medieval Bridle fitting (LEIC-732185). Copyright: Wendy Scott. License: CC BY-SA

Erewash continued to be occupied throughout the Iron Age, as this next object shows (DENO-B0A936). It is an incomplete but beautiful beaded torc that dates from the late Iron Age to early Roman period. The object consists of one terminal and ten beads. The other terminal has broken, and is missing. Each of the ten beads has a raised central plain with a beaded line to each side. It dates from the 1st to 3rd centuries and was found near Ockbrook.

Iron Age Beaded Torc (DENO-B0A936). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA

The next two objects are interesting pieces and show that even the Romans were partial to to fun and games in Derbyshire! The first is instantly recognisable and is commonly used today (DENO-81AC76). It is a die made of copper alloy and the numbers are in dot form on the surface of each face. The second is a beautiful coloured object (DENO-4AE6C1). It is probably a gaming piece or bead made of a bright blue glass. The front face of this object is domed and the reverse is flat. There appears to be a hole through the centre which seems to be wider at the bottom than the top. Both objects date to the Roman period AD c. 43 – AD 410 .

Roman Die (DENO-81AC76). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA
Roman blue glass probable gaming piece (DENO-4AE6C1). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA

During the Early Medieval period, Erewash was a busy place. The town of Ilkeston was founded in the 6th century and seems to have derived it’s name from its supposed founder Elch or Elcha, who was an Anglian chieftain (Elka’s Tun = Elka’s Town). This zoomorphic strap end dates from a few centuries later (DENO-839B93). The strap end has a zoomorphic (or animal) terminal at one end with a wolf, snake or dog head usually depicted. There is a decorated panel with a design of interlocking knotwork in the centre of the object. This is a lovely example and is almost complete. It dates from the 9th Century AD.

Early Medieval Zoomorphic Strap End (DENO-839B93). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA

Finds from the Medieval period are more common in this region than previous periods. This gold annular brooch is one of the more special items from the area (DENO-1AF752). It has been decorated with a pair of clasped hands on one edge and the pin has a collar at the junction of the loop and shaft. The inscription reads “IOV I: IVIL VOI ONLI”. It appears garbled, but it can be reconstructed as “Love, I will you only”. Which suggests it was given as a gift between lovers. It is a beautiful object with a wonderful and loyal sentiment behind it.

Medieval Gold Annular Brooch (DENO-1AF752). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA

More finds are discovered in the region of Erewash from the Post Medieval period than are found from any other period. One of these finds is a silver soldino of Doge Leonardo Lorendano of Venice (DENO-2B1DD6). The coin depicts the standing figure of Christ on the obverse (front), with the standing figure of St Mark with the kneeling Doge at his feet on the reverse. This object highlights how interconnected places like Derbyshire, and the rest of the country, were at this time with the rest of Europe. During the 15th and 16th century there was a shortage of English struck halfpennies within the economy of the country, so people began filling the gap with foreign coinage. This is an example of one of the coins they used instead, this coin has a similar weight in silver as an English halfpenny. This coin dates from AD 1501 – AD 1521.

Post Medieval Soldino of Doge Leonardo Lorendano (DENO-2B1DD6). Copyright: Derby Museums Trust. License: CC BY-SA



Meet the Volunteers: Roger

Copyright: Roger Thomas License: All Rights Reserved.
Copyright: Roger Thomas License: All Rights Reserved.

Tell us about yourself.

I’m a secondhand & antiquarian bookseller who got interested in archaeology by watching Time Team on the telly. I joined a local archaeology group in 2007, had my first go with a metal detector in 2014, was signed up to the PASt Explorers scheme by Wendy Scott (FLO for Leicestershire and Rutland) in 2015 and have been self-recording my finds onto the PAS database since then.

I live in North west Leicestershire, but do most of my fieldwork over the border in South Derbyshire.


What does your role involve?

An awful lot of learning! I don’t have an academic background (I was expelled from Grammar School in 1970 for taking time off to go and see Jimi Hendrix at the Isle of Wight festival, which seemed like a good idea at the time – and to be honest it still does) but I’ve always been interested in books and have assembled a decent library of finds identification books to help with self-recording. And I can always bother Alastair whenever I get really stuck.

I usually go out detecting twice a week and at the time of writing I’ve found about 300 objects which are worth a record. As I’ve been detecting for 23 months, that equates to 13 items a month, or roughly 1½ items per detecting session. Or to put it another way, for every 4 hours spent detecting I usually find one thing that isn’t a shotgun cartridge, mastitis ointment tube, horseshoe, bit off a tractor, ringpull, bottle cap or green waste…..


What area of history/archaeology are you most interested in?

At the moment I’m particularly interested in what happened in South Derbyshire after the Roman Conquest.


Why did you start volunteering for the PAS?

I was keen to identify things myself and there was no FLO in post for Derbyshire at the time, so Wendy Scott suggested I could have a go at recording stuff myself. There was an offer of free training, which I was only too happy to accept.


What do you enjoy most about volunteering for the PAS?

The training days I’ve been on – at the British Museum, York & Leicester Universities, the Museum of London and Birmingham Museum – have all been thoroughly enjoyable, and I’ve learned more in the last one & a half years than in the previous forty.


What is the most exciting find from Derbyshire you have recorded so far?

That would probably be the 13 Roman lead sling shots.

Three images of a lead Roman slingshot.
A Roman sling shot from Catton, South Derbyshire (PUBLIC-640928). Copyright: Roger Thomas. License: CC-BY.

They are the first to be recorded from the East Midlands, and I’d love to find out more about why they were where I found them.


What is your favourite find from Derbyshire that has been recorded on the PAS database and why?

Not sure if I’m supposed to choose something I haven’t recorded myself, but everyone who’s ever handled this Neolithic stone axehead (PUBLIC-6B05D3) has wanted to take it home with them.

Neolithic stone axehead (PUBLIC-6B05D3). Copyright: Roger Thomas. License: CC-BY

It’s just so beautiful and tactile and must have taken someone hundreds of hours of polishing to get that fabulous surface finish.

It was probably deposited into the River Trent as a votive offering. Luckily for us the river moved and it was found in the spoilheap when a lake was being dug over the palaeochannel.

Thanks are due to Kevin Leahy for helping with the photography.