HOARD

Unique ID: WILT-9439A7

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Published Find validated and published by finds advisers

Description: A hoard of 82 copper-alloy and iron objects: 34 cast copper-alloy socketed axes, 39 copper-alloy rings, 2 copper-alloy bracelets/bangles, 3 iron spearheads, 1 iron sickle and several (2 joining) fragments of copper-alloy sheet metal.

Catalogue

Abbreviations:
EIA = Early Iron Age ; LBA = Late Bronze Age
L = Length; W = Width; T = Thickness; D = Diameter

Catalogue completed before conservation work undertaken. Socketed objects still have earth within the socket therefore the weight will be affected. Other objects will also have mud adhering to the surface which means that their weight will be affected.

Assume all objects are complete and copper alloy unless otherwise stated.

Socketed Axe /49\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper alloy socketed axe of Sompting type. Complete. Side looped. Bulbous, subrectangular, double mouth moulding. Blade shows definite signs of wear and re-sharpening. Both faces are decorated with seven ribs ending in pellets, two of which are on outer edges of the faces. Most of the casting seams have been removed, some still in place. Socketed axes of Sompting type date from the transitional or, more likely, the Earliest Iron Age (c. 800-600BC). They have been found in association with cauldrons of Class B1 and B2 (Llyn Fawr (Glamorgan), Sompting (West Sussex)) and, on one occasion, with a Gündlingen sword fragment (Ferring (Sussex)). Sompting axes are typically large, heavy implements with a decoration of ribs ending in pellets or a more elaborate variant thereof.

Socketed Axe /63\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper alloy socketed axe of Sompting type. Complete. Bulbous, subrectangular, double mouth moulding. Blade shows definite signs of wear and re-sharpening. The crescentic blade has nearly "curled up" corners. Most of the casting seams have been removed, some remain on sides of axe. The axe is undecorated. Socketed axes of Sompting type (see above) are normally highly decorated, but one variant is plain. This variant are characterised by a less wide body and widely splayed blade. 20 of these plain Sompting axes were found in the hoard from Tower Hill (Oxfordshire), and there are several plain, unassociated examples, e.g. from Lovehayne (Devon), R Kew (London), Oxborough (Norfolk), Beckley (Oxfordshire), North Knapdale (Argyll), Cronan (Perthshire) and Llanberis (Caernarvonshire).

Socketed Axe /72\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper alloy socketed axe of Sompting type. Complete. Side looped. Bulbous, subrectangular, double mouth moulding. Blade shows definite signs of wear and re-sharpening. Decorated with three ribs.

Socketed Axe /74\

Descripton: Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, double mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth.Decorated on both faces with two central ribs which are diverging towards the end, terminating in pellets within small circlets.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The two parts of the cast axe have split and broken apart along the blade.No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford can be found in the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset). The decoration on this axe (/74\) is so far unique.

Socketed Axe /43\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes somewhat prominent on sides, blade and mouth, but flattened down in places. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.One side is missing the lower half of the body and the clay core is showing through. The core is of reddish/orange colour. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset). The decoration on this axe (/74\) is so far unique.

Socketed Axe /52\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and especially mouth.It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Some iron residue seems to be left on one of the faces. Very similar to /43\.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon.No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /51\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and especially mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Some iron residue seems to be left on one of the faces. Very similar to /43\. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /56\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Slightly miscast mouth. Probably iron residue on surface. Undecorated.Some iron residue seems to be left on one of the faces. Very similar to /51\. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon..No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /1\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Some iron residue seems to be left on one of the faces. Very similar to /43\. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /54\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Tip of blade broken. The outermost edge is fractured and slightly bent and cracked. Core still intact. Small hole (casting flaw) in side opposite side with loop. Undecorated. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /59\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /42\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth, but seem to have been flattened in lower part of axe. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /62\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Clay core still intact. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /55\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.One corner of blade and lower part of axe splintered and cracked, missing. Clay core showing through. Casting seams still intact and especially pronounced around the loop - more pronounced than on any of the other axes.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /44\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Greenish patina, silver sheen in patches.Fractured along blade and along lower part of sides along casting seams. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /48\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /61\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /77\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Casting flaw in mouth moulding, opposite side with loop. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /73\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /71\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. Seems slightly bigger and heavier that previous axes. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Clay core still intact. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /67\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /79\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /66\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very extremely on sides and very prominent along blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /70\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes extremely prominent on sides and very prominent on blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /57\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes extremely prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /53\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Incomplete.Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. ½ of the mouth and mouth moulding are missing opposite the side with the loop. Undecorated.Heavily encrusted with green patination. Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /60\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Slightly miscast mouth moulding. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /78\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Slightly miscast cutting edge. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /68\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes extremely prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /65\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes extremely prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Small casting flaw (hole) beneath loop.Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /58\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes only somewhat prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /69\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes somewhat less prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /50\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Socketed Axe /64\

Description:Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe related to Types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford. Complete. Side-looped, high tin alloy, single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes very prominent on sides, blade and mouth. It has a square/nearly sub-rectangular mouth moulding and a very small side loop. Undecorated.Axes of this type are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. No plain examples have been known until now, but parallels for the related decorated types Portland, East Rudham and Blandford are well known from the Early Iron Age hoards from East Rudham (Norfolk), Blandford (Dorset), King's Weston Hill (Avon) and Langton Matravers (Dorset).

Ring /2\

Description: Cast copper alloy ringwith lozenge-shaped cross section, iron corrosion on one face.

Ring /3\

Description: Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section.

Ring /4\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, possible defined rib.

Ring /5\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with D-shaped cross section, flat on one face.

Ring /6\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with oval cross section, possibly traces of wear.

Ring /7\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, possible wear on one edge, cracks apparent in outside edge.

Ring /8\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with oval cross section, wear in two places, casting flash apparent on inside of hoop.

Ring /9\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, wear on one side (resulting in now circular cross section).

Ring /10\

Description: Cast copper alloy ring with D-shaped cross section, flat on one face

Ring /11\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with roughly circular cross-section in one place (3.18x3.54). Immediately opposite signs of extreme wear (1.08x1.53mm).Between roughly slipped-oval/ lozengiform cross-section (4.19x3.46 and 3.85x3.78mm).Casting seam apparent on inside surface.Dark shiny patina visible below metal concretion.

Ring /12\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, slightly angular in cross section. Wear to one edge on internal side.

Ring /13\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring, bent slightly out of shape, rounded lozenge shape in cross section, somewhat uneven in the outside edge

Ring /14\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, thicker on one side to the other, possible wear (gouge mark), smooth patina.

Ring /15\

Description: Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section.

Ring /16\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular/oval cross section, oval in plan, traces of iron corrosion on surface.

Ring /17\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, some possible wear to one side (circular cross section), iron staining close to wear

Ring /18\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, accentuated mid rib on outside edge, iron corrosion.

Ring /19\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, possible wear on internal loop, iron corrosion products adhering to surface.

Ring /20\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, iron corrosion products adhering to surface.

Ring /21\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with hexagonal cross section, part of the loop is damaged on inside and outside; surface iron corrosion to c. 1/3 of outer edge on one side only.

Ring /22\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, well-defined.

Ring /23\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring which was probably formed from a lozenge-shaped cross sectioned rod bent so either end touch, high tin content.

Ring /24\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section.

Ring /25\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section.

Ring /26\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular/oval cross-section. Casting flashes remain on inside edge.

Ring /27\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, slightly flattened on one side, wear apparent in one place.

Ring /28\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with oval cross section and possible wear on internal edge

Ring /29\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section. Made from a rod bent into a circle with ends touching.

Ring /30\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, high tin content. Possible wear on internal edge.

Ring /31a\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section. The hoop thickens in one part which is probably a casting flaw. High tin content.

Ring /31b\

Description: Cast copper alloy ring, sub-circular in plan with circular cross section but slightly flattened on all surfaces.

Ring /32\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, casting flaw on inside edge. Sub circular in plan, traces of wear.

Ring /33\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with irregular lozenge-shaped cross section, being shorter on inside edge.

Ring /34\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, wear on inside and outside edge. It is slightly bent and has a high tin content.

Ring /36\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with attached piece of riveted sheet metal. The ring is sub circular in cross section and was probably cast from a high tin-alloy. The diameter is 51.79, internal diameter is 42.47. Its thickness is 4.65mm and the hoop is 4.84. Curling around the ring is a piece of sheet copper alloy which is roughly rectangular in shape but cut in a curve. One end of the sheet extends beyond the other, where the shorter edge terminates it is broken across a rivet hole (2mm in diameter) which matches to a rivet hole on the extending piece which has a diameter of 2.7mm. Both rivet holes have been cut from front to back. Where the strip of copper alloy curves around the ring there is a rivet through one side only, which is in situ. It is c.3mm in diameter and 2.87mm long. The ring and copper alloy sheet weigh 25.8 grams. A further copper-alloy curved fragment is cut in a curve which does not appear to match the fragment which is bent around the ring. Both ends curve backwards and have jagged old breaks, one of which is across a rivet hole 3mm in diameter. At the centre of the fragment is a further rivet hole, 3mm in diameter, both rivets in the fragment are punched from front to back. The copper colour of the metal shines through the concretion. The fragment is 63.29mm in length, 17.68mm wide, 0.55mm thick and weighs 3.8 grams.

Ring /38\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, some iron corrosion on surface; high tin content.

Ring /39\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with lozenge-shaped cross section, patches of iron corrosion on both surfaces.

Ring /46\

Description:Cast copper alloy ring with circular cross section, wear on inside edge. Sheet metal fragment no. /47\ was folded around it (description of sheet metal below).

Ring /75\

Description:Cast copper-alloy pennanular bracelet, traces of iron corrosion to one side. Oval cross section at either abutting terminal. At the centre the bracelet has a D-shaped cross section. The abutting terminals are 5.8 x 4.5mm. Either is encircled with two grooves, around the curved outside edge is a double grooved decoration. Length: 72.89mm. Width: 55.87mm. Thickness: 6.30mm. Weight: 29.8g.

Ring /76\

Description: Cast copper alloy ring or possibly bangle with circular cross section. Traces of iron corrosion on the outer edge. The outer edge is decorated with two deep parallel grooves, the corresponding central rib has tiny transverse grooves to give a bead effect.

Sheet metal

Sheet metal /35\

Description: Two joining fragments of sheet copper alloy which is rectangular in shape but cut in a curve. One end curves backwards and has in situ a central rivet which is 3.6mm in diameter, 3.52mm long and 3.2mm diameter at the centre. The jagged break at other end is fresh. The combined length is 41.43, 18.96mm in width and 0.52mm thick. The combined weight is 2.3g.

Sheet metal /47\

Description:A piece of sheet copper alloy, which was wrapped around ring no. /46\.Possibly a strap fitting. It is rectangular in plan, but in three fragments with are all bent. One plate has a jagged broken edge (35.18mm wide narrowing to 33.60mm at the bend) and it has two rivets in situ close to the bend. The rivets are c.3mm - 3.5mm in diameter and c.4mm in length. The other side comprises of two pieces with a fresh break 33.83mm wide at the bend which narrows to 26.78mm at the other end. Two rivet holes are visible close to the bent end. They correspond to the rivets on the front piece. One rivet is intact and is 4mm in diameter and is 4mm in length; the perforation is c.2.5mm in diameter. The fragment has two rivets in situ which are each 4mm in diameter and 4mm in length. The broken end would originally have been c. 24mm. The copper alloy plates are 0.75mm thick and a combined weight is 21.9 grams, the complete artefact is 91.34mm in length. A patch of iron corrosion is visible.

Sickle

Iron sickle /40\

Description:An incomplete iron sickle surviving in 4 fragments missing its tip and tang. A fragment with a rectangular cross section of uncertain function measures 33.99 x 6.02 x 3.13mm. The spur at the end of the sickle is a curving fragment with pointed oval cross section measures 51.78 x 18.50 x 6.65. It is possible that rather than a heel, it was part of the 'eye' of the sickle. The main part of the blade has a lozenge shaped cross section extending into the tang now missing, 131 x max 43.11mm at tip 21.82 x 5.31mm thick. Curving broken blade fragment (fresh break) 56.61 x 27.5 break before tip measures 14.54 x 4.84 a combined weight is 78 grams. Length of object is c.137mm.

Spearheads

Iron spearhead /41a\

Description:An incomplete small iron spearhead fragment missing its tip and socket end. The tip of spearhead no. 41b adheres to one face of spearhead 41a. The break on the fragment adhered to the edge is very fresh (143.81 x 35.41mm (the socket end at the break has a diameter of 13.55mm) the weight (including a fragment of spear 2) is 92.3 grams.

Iron spearhead /41b\

Description:An incomplete iron spearhead broken into three fragments: blade tip (which is stuck to one face of spearhead no. 41a and measure 50.72 x 21.44mm), lower blade - the break is fresh -(71.78 30.59mm) and a fragment of the socketed end (32.1 x 19.75mm). The two fragments excluding the tip adhered to spearhead no. 41a weigh 36.7 grams.

Iron spearhead /45\

Description: An incomplete iron spearhead broken into five fragments and missing the tip. One blade fragment measures 60.86 x 34.42mm, the lower blade and top of socket fragment measures 94.78 x 32.90mm, the socket measures 20.55 x 18.25mm. The remainder of the lower socket consists of three fragments measuring 65.5mm in length and with a max. diameter of 22.48 x 22.68mm. The min. diameter is 18.22 x 16.81mm. The combined weight is 106.6g. The total length is c. 200mm.

Discussion

The Hindon hoard was initially discovered whilst out metal detecting on cultivated land, but subsequently retrieved under controlled archaeological excavation. The hoard contains c. 82 bronze and iron weapons, tools and rings dating from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age and was probably buried in or towards the end of the 7th century BC. The object range of the hoard's contents is as follows: copper-alloy socketed axes (33), copper-alloy rings (39), copper-alloy bracelets/bangles (2), copper-alloy fragments of sheet metal, one still wrapped around a ring (3+), iron spearheads (3), iron sickle (1). While most of the copper alloy items are in good condition, the four iron artefacts are definitely in need of conservation.

The most striking characteristic of the hoard is the unusually high number of copper-alloy rings (39) and the presence of sheet-metal. The number of complete cast copper-alloy socketed axes (33) is high, but not unreasonably so and certainly comparable to the number of axes from other contemporary English hoards, i.e. Figheldean Down (Wiltshire) (21 axes), Mylor (Cornwall) (33 axes) and Tower Hill (Oxfordshire) (21 axes) (Coombs, Northover and Maskall 2003; Coombs 1979, 253-268; Thomas 1989, 281; Huth 1997, 275). While the hoards from Figheldean Down and Mylor contained only socketed axes, the hoard from Tower Hill also contained 61 bracelet- and ring fragments and other ornaments, but many of the ring/bracelet fragments were bent, folded up and incomplete.

The socketed axes of the Hindon hoard may be divided into two groups: 1. Copper-alloy axes of Sompting Type (3) and 2. high-tin copper-alloy axes, one of which displays a unique decoration (31) which is unparalled in other high-tin copper alloy axes but resembles that of two axes from the Cambridge Area (nr. Ely?) (AshmoleanMuseum: Acc. No. 1927.2623); University of Cambridge Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology: Acc. No. 48.2525.A). These axes are of linear-decorated type which is related to Norfolk's high-tin copper alloy axes of Type East Rudham. The two axes from the Cambridge area were probably made in the same mould and display on both faces one rib which bifurcates, both ends terminating in a circlet. The axe from Hindon displays a very similar decoration, only that there are two ribs curving outwards towards the end and terminating in what looks like a pellet-in-circlet at each end.

The other three larger, heavier axes are of Type Sompting. Plain and rib-and-pellet decorated Sompting type axes are known from Early Iron Age hoards such as Tower Hill (Oxfordshire), Kingston (Surrey) and Cardiff II (Leckwith, Vale of Glamorgan), while axes which were made from a high tin/low lead copper-alloy are known from hoards found at Netherhampton (Wiltshire), Lanton Matravers, Portland and Eggardon Hill (Dorset) and East Rudham (Norfolk). However, it needs to be stated that Hindon's plain, undecorated axes with single mouth moulding are probably a new type: all of the other high-tin copper alloy axes from Dorset and Wiltshire are decorated with a variety of rib-and-pellet ornaments and the same kind of axes from Norfolk display an ornament of ribs along the sides of each face (i.e. linear-decorated). However, all of these axes share one important characteristic that distinguishes them from other Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age socketed axes: they are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called 'tin-sweat' phenomenon. This shiny, silvery surface is still visible in patches on some of the axes from Hindon. It is possible that this 'tin-sweat' phenomenon was intentionally used in order to make the axes look more similar to the earliest iron artefacts. Casting iron was not possible at the time and most if not all early iron artefacts would have not had an intricate moulded decoration. Even the attachment of a small wrought iron side loop to a socketed axe made from wrought iron would have been difficult: after the initial attempt at making iron socketed axes which were almost exact copies of their copper-alloy forerunners, people reverted back to making iron axes with a vertical hole for the handle.

The presence of iron artefacts in a transitional hoard is fortuitous and not all that unusual for a hoard dating from the transition period or the Early Iron Age. Examples of copper-alloy and iron artefacts found in association are known from Wiltshire (Melksham), the Vale of Glamorgan (Llyn Fawr) and possibly Sussex (Ferring) (Gingell 1979, 245-251; O'Connor 1980, 423, no. 224; Wiltshire Archaeological Register for 1972, 1973, 128; Wiltshire Archaeological Register for 1981, 1982, 158; Thomas 1989, 282; Osgood 1995, 50-59; Aldsworth 1985, 4; Huth 1997, 275; Crawford and Wheeler 1921, 133-140; Fox and Hyde 1939, 369-404; Grimes 1939, no. 455a, 192-199; Savory 1976, 46-55; Savory 1980, no. 291-294; O'Connor 1980, 420, no. 218; Green 1985, 288-90; Thomas 1989, 281; Gerloff 2010, 182-7). It is likely that a greater number of transitional hoards included iron artefacts, but early iron objects were made from wrought iron and because they generally degrade very quickly (depending on soil conditions), they do not usually leave more than a trace in the ground. Without archaeological investigation of the findspot fragments may have been overlooked by finders in the past.

Generally speaking,the counties of Wiltshire and Glamorgan are renowned for discoveries of earliest iron artefacts, for example socketed axes made from wrought iron (Penllyn Moor, Vale of Glamorgan) and iron sickles, knives, etc (All Cannings Cross, Wiltshire) (Cunnington 1922, 13-18; Cunnington and Cunnington 1923; British Museum Iron Age Guide 1925, 89; Dunning 1934, 270-1, fig. 2.1; Harding, D.W. 1974, 155-56, fig. 41; O'Connor 1980, 597, List 250, no. 3.). However, nearly all of these early iron artefacts come from settlements (e.g. All Cannings Cross) or middens such as Potterne and East Chisenbury (both Wiltshire). The context at Penllyn Moor (Glamorgan) is uncertain.

Generally it appears that thetypes of early iron artefacts which were deposited in association with copper-alloy artefacts were limited, however: the Hindon hoard contained three iron spearheads and one iron sickle. The same iron artefact types were discovered at Melksham (Wiltshire) and Llyn Fawr (Glamorgan). Hindon's iron sickle is only the second iron sickle discovered in a hoard context: the only other specimen was found deposited in the small mountain lake of Llyn Fawr (Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales), together with two Class B2 cauldrons, an iron sword fragment (Type Mindelheim), 6 rib-and-pellet decorated socketed axe, a socketed chisel, a socketed axe fragment, 2 heeled socketed sickles (bronze), 3 socketed gouges, 1 razor, 3 phalerae, 2 cheek pieces, 1 belt fitting, 1 yoke mount and 1 iron spearhead. 2 further iron spearheads were discovered in the River Avon at Melksham (Wiltshire), together with 3 copper-alloy spearheads, 1 rapier blade and three phalerae (decorative horse trappings). The major difference between the finds is their overall condition (Melksham and Llyn Fawr were finds from clearly wet contexts which may have aided their excellent preservation) and the fact that while Llyn Fawr's sickle was socketed, Hindon's is tanged. Furthermore Hindon's spearheads are smaller than Llyn Fawr's and undecorated, very much unlike the larger of the two iron spearheads from Melksham. However, the smaller of Melksham's spearheads is an excellent parallel as it seems to be of the same size, shape and it is undecorated, too.

It is important to note here that the above-mentioned early iron artefacts from Llyn Fawr and Melkshamwere predominantly deposited in association with socketed axes, items of horse trappings, harness decorations and vessels. This may help us with the identification of the other, somewhat less straight-forward items in the Hindon hoard: the rings and fragments of riveted sheet metal. While no. 75 is most certainly a Late Bronze Age penannular bracelet with decorated terminals, it seems more likely that a number of shaped rings such as nos. 13, 15, 17 and 18 (lozenge-shaped cross section), no. 21 (hexagonal cross section) and no. 76 (grooved ring) were handles of sheet metal cauldrons of Class A1 (Type Tul-na-cross) and Class B1 (Types Llyn Fawr, Ballyshannon and Castlederg) (Gerloff 2010, Pl. 17, 7b; Pl.32, 14a; Pl. 33, 14f-h; Pl. 34, 15d, Pl. 54, 33c and Pl. 66, 37g).

The fragments of sheet metal are difficult to identify. Even though they may well have been part of a copper-alloy cauldron or bucket, we have no evidence for that. Most of the sheet metal has not been found folded around one of the rings, except for no. 36 and no. 47 which was folded around ring no. 46. The piece of folded sheet metal seems to have been semi-circular before it was folded around one of the rings with a simple circular cross section. This type of attachment does not correspond to the lay-out of a vessel of Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age type. It seems more likely that the folded-over sheet was attached to a leather strap or belt and that this item was part of copper-alloy horse harness. The other rings are all of different shapes and sizes, but their association with the rest of the hoard cannot be doubted. It seems most likely that the simple rings with circular cross-section were part of horse trappings or else, they could have been part of a chain from which a cauldron or other vessel was suspended over a fire. We have evidence for this kind of Early Iron Age 'feasting', possibly around a pyre, from Broom (Warwickshire) and Llanmaes (Vale of Glamorgan) (Watson 1999, 43-50).

Conclusion

The Hindon hoard comprises of 82 objects which all date from the Late Bronze Age and Earliest Iron Age that is c. 1000-600BC. The hoard contains both copper-alloy and iron objects which suggests that the hoard was deposited during the Earliest Iron Age, that is c. 800-600BC.

Thus, in light of these parallels, the Hindon hoard qualifies as Treasure under the Amendment to the Treasure Act of 1996 (Category 2) which stipulates that any group of two or more metallic objects of any composition of any prehistoric date that come from the same find and found after 1 January 2003, qualify as Treasure under the Treasure Act.

Dot Boughton MPhil MSt; FLO (Lancashire and Cumbria)

Katie Hinds MA; FLO (Wiltshire)

Many thanks to Richard Henry (FLO Warwickshire and Worcestershire) and Dr Sue Bridgford (BM volunteer) for their generous help with measuring and weighing the hoard's contents.

Bibliography:

Aldsworth, F.G. 1985. 'Proceedings of the Summer Meeting of the Royal Archaeological Institute at Chichester.Archaeology in West Sussex'.Arch. Journal, 142, 1-6.

BritishMuseum Iron Age Guide 1925.A Guide to the Antiquities of the Early Iron Age in the Department of British and Medieval Antiquities.London.

Coombs, D. 1979. 'The Figheldean Down Hoard, Wiltshire'. In: Burgess, C. and Coombs 1979 (eds). Bronze Age Hoards. Some finds Old and New.Oxford, 253-268.

Coombs, Northover and Maskall 2003.'Tower Hill Axe Hoard'. In: Miles et al. 2003. Uffington White Hoarse and its landscape. Oxford Archaeological Unit, 203-225.

Crawford, O.G.S. and Wheeler, R.E.M. 1921. 'The Llyn Fawr and other Hoards of the Bronze Age'.Archaeologia 71, 133-140

Cunnington, M.E. 1922. 'A Village Site of the Hallstatt Period in Wiltshire'.Ant. Journal II, 13ff.

Cunnington, M.E. and Cunnington, B.H. 1923. The Early Iron Age inhabited site All Cannings Cross Farm, Wiltshire. Devizes.

Dunning, G.C. 1934. 'The Swan's Neck and Ring-Headed pins of the Early Iron Age in Britain'.Arch. Journal 91, 269-295.

Fox, C. and Hyde, H.A. 1939. 'A Second Cauldron and an Iron Sword from the Llyn Fawr Hoard, Rhigos, Glamorganshire'.Ant. Journal XIX, 369-404.

Gerloff, S. 2010. 'Atlantic cauldrons and buckets.Studies in typology, origin and function of multi-sheet vessels of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Western Europe.With a contribution on their construction and metallurgy by P. Northover.'Prähistorische Bronzefunde II, 18. Stuttgart.

Gingell, C. 1979. 'The Bronze and Iron Hoard from Melksham and another Wiltshire find'. In: Burgess, C. and Coombs 1979 (eds). Bronze Age Hoards. Some finds Old and New.Oxford, 245-251.

Green, H.S. 1985. 'The Llyn Fawr Hoard: Two New Finds'. B.B.C.S. XXXII, 288-290.

Grimes, W.F. 1939.Guide to the Collection illustrating the Prehistory of Wales.Cardiff.

Harding, D.W. 1974. The Iron Age in Lowland Britain.London.

Huth, C. 1997. WesteuropäischeHorte der Spätbronzezeit. Regensburg.

O'Connor, B. 1980.Cross-channel relations in the later Bronze Age.Oxford.

Osgood, R. 1995. 'Three Bronze Phalerae from the River Avon, near Melksham'. W.A.N.H.M. 88, 50-59.

Anon 1971-1972.'SalisburyMuseum Annual Report (Note on Figheldean Down)'.Salisbury and SouthWiltshireMuseum Annual Report, 16.

Savory, H.N. 1976.Guide Catalogue of the Early Iron Age Collection (NationalMuseum of Wales).Cardiff.

Savory, H.N. 1980.Guide Catalogue of the Bronze Age Collection (NationalMuseum of Wales). Cardiff.

Thomas, R. 1989. 'The Bronze-Iron transition in Southern England.' In: Stig-Sørensen, M.L. and Thomas, R. (eds.) 1989. The Bronze-Iron Age transition in Europe: aspects of continuity and change in European societies, c. 1200-500BC. Oxford, 263-286.

Watson, P. 1999. 'Broom, Area E: Bronze cauldrons'. In: Palmer, C. et al. 1999. 'Archaeological Excavations in the ArrowValley, Warwickshire'.Trans. Birmingham and Warwickshire Arch. Soc. 103, 43-50.

Wiltshire Archaeological Register for 1971.'Bronze Age - no. 71/52 (Figheldean Down)'.W.A.N.H.S. 67, 167-178.

Wiltshire Archaeological Register for 1972.'Bronze Age - no. 72/32 (Melksham)'.W.A.N.H.S. 68, 126-139.

Wiltshire Archaeological Register for 1981.'Bronze Age - nos. 18 (Melksham) and 20 (Potterne)'.W.A.N.H.S. 77, 157-163.

This has been noted as an interesting find by the recorder.

Subsequent actions

Current location of find: Salisbury & South Wiltshire Museum
Subsequent action after recording: Acquired by museum after being declared Treasure

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2012T46

Chronology

Broad period: IRON AGE
Subperiod from: Late
Period from: BRONZE AGE [scope notes | view all attributed records]
Subperiod to: Early
Period to: IRON AGE [scope notes | view all attributed records]
Date from: Circa 800 BC
Date to: Circa 600 BC

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 82

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Sunday 11th December 2011 - Wednesday 18th January 2012

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Mrs Dot Boughton - [ view all attributed records]
Identified by: Mrs Dot Boughton - [view all attributed records]
Secondary identifier: Ms Katie Hinds - [ view all attributed records]

Other reference numbers

Treasure case number: 2012T46

Materials and construction

Primary material: Copper alloy [scope notes | view all attributed records]
Secondary material: Iron [scope notes| view all attributed records]
Completeness: Complete [scope notes | view all attributed records]

A resized image of Early Iron Age Hoard

Image use policy

Our images can be used under a CC BY-SA licence (unless stated otherwise).

Spatial metadata

Region: South West
County: Wiltshire
District: Wiltshire
To be known as: Hindon

Spatial coordinates

Grid reference source: GPS (From FLO)
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 1 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Controlled archaeological investigation [scope notes]
General landuse: Cultivated land[scope notes]
Specific landuse: Operations to a depth less than 0.25 m[scope notes]

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Created: Friday 20th January 2012
Updated: Tuesday 11th March 2014

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