HOARD

Unique ID: WILT-E8DA70

Object type certainty: Certain
Workflow status: Published Find validated and published by finds advisers

A hoard of c.114 Bronze Age objects spanning the Early Bronze Age to the Earliest Iron Age and probably deposited c.800-600 BC.

Abbreviations:
LBA = Late Bronze Age; MBA = Middle Bronze Age; EBA = Early Bronze Age
L = Length; W = Width; T = Thickness; D = Diameter

Catalogue completed before conservation work undertaken. Socketed objects still have earth within the socket therefore the weight will be affected. Other objects will also have mud adhering to the surface and so weight may be affected. Scales used will not weigh heavier than 300g.

Assume all objects are complete and copper alloy unless otherwise stated.

Weapons

Rapiers


Rapier /37\
Description: Complete but with damage with active corrosion. At least two rivet holes. Blade is lenticular in cross-section with a slight mid rib and bevelled edges, probably Group II. Both edges are damaged with an area of possible notches cut into the edge of the blade (one area beneath the butt end and the other roughly in the middle). Corrosion is quite active in these notches. Corrosion and mud obscure the shape of the butt, but it is probably angular and it is certainly flat. In one of the rivet holes is a tubular rivet 20.10mm long, circular expanded ends circa 11mm diameter and a constriction in the centre, 8.87mm wide. Blade narrows below the shoulders from 45.95mm by 5.99mm (cross section) to the tip (thick 4.35mm of tip). Found with it was another circular-section rivet, now much obscured by mud, 2mm in diameter. It has an oval-shaped head at one end which measures 11.44 x 9.09 x 1.58mm. At the other end is another similar head obscured by mud but holding behind it a fragment of copper alloy 0.8mm thick. Rivet /29\ is probably part of this object.
Dimensions: L 97.66mm; W 45.95mm (max;) Butt 65.74 long 1.78mm thick;
Weight: 254.46g


Rivet /29\
Description: Tubular with expanded ends, each end is circa 10.5mm in diameter, body measures 8.67mm in diameter. Probably part of /37\.
Dimensions: L 9.11mm
Weight: 8.47g



Swords

Probably all Ewart Park phase except 64.


Sword hilt /108\
Description: Fragment of finial consisting of finial and part of plate. It is flat without raised edges. T-bar has pointed ends and measures 38.63x3.91mm, edges below concave. At the old break the plate measures 16.41 x 5.72mm. The fragment appears to be slightly twisted probably through the break. No flange definition.
Dimensions: L 35.44mm; W 38.63mm (max), T 5.72mm
Weight: 21.83g


Sword hilt /13\
Description: Fragment consisting of finial and most of the hilt plate. T-bar has pointed ends and measures 27.43 x 4.21mm, edges immediately below are concave extending into convex along the length of the plate. The old break measures 20.74 x 6.16mm. Both sides have flanges 6.16mm thick, inside plate is 3.84mm thick. At centre of plate is the slot 35.09mm long and widening from 4.38mm to 6.03mm. Probably joins with /64\.
Dimensions: L 66.95mm; W 23.01mm (max), T 6.16mm
Weight: 30.25g


Sword hilt /64\
Description: Fragment consisting of the shoulders and part of the blade below. At the old break the flanges from the handle above are apparent and c.5.87mm thick. A wide rounded mid rib is also apparent at the centre. The shoulders have a small circular rivet hole circa 3.21mm above a large more oval hole on either side, 9.52 x 6.97mm. Below, the ricasso is concave. The blade is lenticular in cross-section measuring 35.60 x 7.79mm below the ricasso and narrowing to 31.42 x 7.81mm at the old break. The blade curves upwards slightly to the break suggesting it has been bent. Probably joins with /13\. Wilburton type.
Dimensions: L 158mm; W 55.98mm (max at shoulders)
Weight: 181.92g


Sword /57\
Description: Incomplete sword missing the lower blade and part of the hilt finial. Hilt finial is pointed and missing one point (finial 35.11 x 3.36mm), edge below concave but extends into a convex line defining the hilt plate, mud obscures whether the hilt plate is slotted or with rivet holes, it has flanges which are 7.05mm thick. Shoulders appear to have one rivet hole on either side, one of which retains a rivet (D 3.91mm x 10.75mm long). In the centre is the beginning of a rounded central mid rib. It is damaged at one end. The ricasso is angled inwards. The blade is lenticular in section and expanding from 35.38 x 11.58mm, to 28.23 x 9.57mm roughly halfway along and then expanding again to 34.70 x 7.76mm at the old break which is bent slightly upwards.
Dimensions: L 74.53mm; W 47.40mm (max at shoulders)
Weight: 300g+


Sword blade /17\
Description: Incomplete blade fragment missing the tip. At old break it is lenticular in cross-section measuring 30.57 x 7.59mm. Widens to 42.06 x 8.40mm just over halfway along then narrows to 15.76 x 4.07mm at the other old break. Flattish rounded mid rib blade is bending upwards at either end.
Dimensions: L 82.53mm; W 42.06mm (max)
Weight: 300g+


Blade /38\
Description: Fragment of possible sword blade missing the tip. It is lenticular in cross-section . The wider break is 24.44 x 6.93mm and then it narrows to 15.87 x 4.13mm. It has active corrosion.
Dimensions: L 49.69mm; W 24.44mm; T 6.93mm.
Weight: 21.00g


Blade /103\
Description: Fragment of possible sword or spear blade consisting of tip end. It is lenticular (almost diamond-shaped) in cross-section at the break, with a prominent mid-rib from which each side slopes away. It has active corrosion.
Dimensions: L 49.45mm; W 20.89mm x 5.02mm (widest part); tip 1.10mm (thick)
Weight: 13.62g

Spearheads

Spearhead /114\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, leaf-shaped blade, socket unusually long, recent damage to blade edge one side, possible orange substance in peg holes, circular-section mid-rib.
Dimensions: L 184mm; W 42.43mm, socket below blade 79.07mm
Weight: 124.08g


Spearhead /1\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, ogival blade, circular-section mid-rib, tip damaged.
Dimensions: L 111.43mm; W 30.61mm
Weight: 54.74g

Spearhead /24\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, ogival blade, circular-section mid-rib, tip missing, damaged socket end.
Dimensions: L 80.29mm; W 28.24mm
Weight: 44.01g


Spearhead /98\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, ogival blade, circular-section mid-rib, socket end damaged.
Dimensions: L 105.35mm; W 29.95mm
Weight: 59.21g


Spearhead /35\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, ogival blade, circular-section mid-rib, slight damage socket end.
Dimensions: L 127.07mm; W 31.14mm
Weight: 74.18g


Spearhead /67\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, ogival blade, circular-section mid-rib.
Dimensions: L 127.48mm; W 31.51mm
Weight: 64.43g


Spearhead /25\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, leaf-shaped blade, blade lenticular in cross-section with prominent narrow mid-rib, socket end damaged .
Dimensions: L 115.20mm; W 27.52mm
Weight: 52.57g

Spearhead /12\
Description: LBA pegged spearhead, leaf-shaped blade, circular-section mid-rib, socket end broken.
Dimensions: L 113.07mm; W 25.68mm
Weight: 49.19g


Spearhead /78\
Description: Incomplete LBA spearhead, probably pegged but lower socket missing, leaf-shaped blade, circular-section mid-rib, tip missing. On one face the socket is missing, on damaged face remains of orange substance inside socket.
Dimensions: L 71.18mm; W 28.05mm
Weight: 28.71g


Spearhead /54\
Description: Fragment of LBA pegged spearhead, leaf-shaped blade, circular-section mid-rib. Noticeable shiny, tinny surface.
Dimensions: L 86.51mm; W 32.65mm
Weight: 50.61g


Spearhead /14\
Description: Fragment of LBA pegged spearhead, socket end only, with base of either blade or loops above. Possible metallic substance in peg holes. Noticeable shiny, tinny surface.
Dimensions: L 60.03mm; W and D 26.46mm
Weight: 40.30g


Spearhead /73\
Description: Fragment of MBA/ LBA spearhead, socket missing, ogival blade, mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section.
Dimensions: L 101.02mm; W 24.65mm
Weight: 37.68g


Spearhead /81\
Description: Fragment of MBA spearhead - tip only, very prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section.
Dimensions: L 69.64mm; W 19.86mm; T 12.90mm
Weight: 28.21g


Spearhead /104\
Description: Fragment of MBA spearhead - tip only, prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section, grooves flanking mid rib, raised bevelled edges. Joins with /113\.
Dimensions: L 77.75mm; W 19.87mm; T 10.71mm
Weight: 34.20g


Spearhead /100\
Description: MBA side-looped spearhead, prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section, blade edges damaged, socket particularly long (L 59.71mm), corrosion and damage obscures blade shape.
Dimensions: L 103.04mm; W 18.21mm
Weight: 40.20g


Spearhead /99\
Description: Fragment of MBA(?) spearhead - tip only, circular-section mid-rib.
Dimensions: L 55.72mm; W 17.11mm
Weight: 12.98g


Spearhead /113\
Description: Incomplete MBA spearhead blade, prominent mid-rib, lozenge-shape in section, grooves flanking mid-rib, raised bevelled edges. Joins with /104\.
Dimensions: L 64.24 mm; W 26.86mm; T 13.22mm
Weight: 49.91g


Spearhead /84\
Description: Fragment of MBA spearhead - tip only, edges very worn, impossible to say if all edges are original, prominent mid-rib.
Dimensions: L 24.52mm; W 9.09mm; T 6.94mm
Weight: 2.64g


Spearhead /9\
Description: Incomplete LBA pegged spearhead missing tip, blade probably ogival, cross-section lenticular, pegged directly below blade.
Dimensions: L 184.00mm; W 50.91mm
Weight: 189.01g


Spearhead /65\
Description: Incomplete MBA spearhead - blade only, flame-shaped blade, prominent mid-rib circular-shaped in section, damaged (possibly by corrosion) along one edge only. Joins /23\.
Dimensions: L 153.40mm; W 46.52mm
Weight: 114.96g


Spearhead /51\
Description: MBA side-looped spearhead, prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section, both blade edges and socket damaged.
Dimensions: L 107.37mm; W 13.57mm
Weight: 27.18g


Spearhead /89\
Description: MBA side-looped spearhead, ogival blade, prominent mid-rib circular-shaped in section, corroded.
Dimensions: L 137.57mm; W 22.22mm
Weight: 69.56g


Spearhead /88\
Description: Incomplete MBA spearhead, probably ogival blade, missing tip, one loop broken, socket end damaged, mid-rib circular-shaped in section.
Dimensions: L 87.64mm; W 19.28mm
Weight: 44.52g


Spearhead /23\
Description: Fragment of MBA spearhead, socket end only with loops, socket end damaged. Joins with /65\.
Dimensions: L 79.79mm; W 25.37mm
Weight: 60.78g


Spearhead /83\
Description: MBA side-looped spearhead, prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section, both loops and one blade edge damaged, socket particularly long (L 43.29mm), corroded particularly on one face.
Dimensions: L 79.20mm; W 17.01mm
Weight: 29.28g


Spearhead /5\
Description: Fragment of MBA spearhead blade, prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section, blade edge very damaged. Joins with /6\.
Dimensions: L 37.72mm; W 15.05mm; T 10.47mm
Weight: 12.67g


Spearhead /6\
Description: Fragment of MBA spearhead blade, prominent mid-rib lozenge-shaped in section, blade edge very damaged. Joins with /5\.
Dimensions: L 66.68mm; W 15.12mm; T 9.50mm
Weight: 15.51g


Spearhead /109\
Description: Incomplete LBA spearhead - blade only, mid-rib circular-shaped in section, lunate openings in the wings, bevelled edges, one face shows sign of a hammer blow.
Dimensions: L 134.77mm; W 55.55mm; T 18.78mm
Weight: 129.64g


Spearhead /18\
Description: MBA side-looped (probably), prominent mid-rib lozenge-shape in section, one blade edge damaged, corroding badly. Similar to /83\. Detail difficult to determine in present condition. Found with ring /19\ adhering to surface when excavated.
Dimensions: L 83.51mm
Weight: Not taken because of the amount of earth adhering the surface.

Tools

Axeheads


Socketed axehead /7\
Description: Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe, probably of Type Blandford. Side-looped, high tin, four ribs on each face, double mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent. These axes are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. Parallels can be found in the Early Iron Age hoards from Blandford (British Museum), King's Weston Hill (Bristol Museum & Art Gallery) and Langton Matravers (Dorset). Axe RS33 from the Netherhampton hoard and the socketed axe from the Blandford hoard, however, though similar, have slimmer, longer bodies and a 'tidier' ribbed decoration.
Dimensions: L 103.49mm; W 54.95mm (cutting edge); circular socket 35.24mm x 32.87mm
Weight: 158.44g

Socketed axehead /8\
Description: Early Iron Age cast copper-alloy socketed axe, probably of Type Blandford, similar to last. Side-looped, two ribs only visible on one face (other face obscured by concretion), single mouth moulding, straight triangular blade, casting flashes prominent. These axes are characteristically cast with a high-tin content and have a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. Parallels can be found in the Early Iron age hoards from Blandford (British Museum), King's Weston Hill (Bristol Museum & Art Gallery) and Langton Matravers (Dorset). Axe RS33 from the Netherhampton hoard and the socketed axe from the Blandford hoard, however, though similar, have slimmer, longer bodies and a 'tidier' ribbed decoration.
Dimensions: L 96.95mm; W 49.99mm (cutting edge); circular socket 30.76mm x 31.24mm
Weight: 146.70g


Socketed axehead /60\
Description: Late Bronze Age socketed axe of Type Meldreth with embellished facets (Burgess and Schmidt 1981, 209f). Side-looped, two ribs on each face, single mouth moulding, five concentric moulded ribs below mouth, all enhancing the facets, blade flares a little, cutting edge slightly curved, casting flashes prominent only around loop. Loop has trefoil-shaped cross-section, which is sometimes seen on Late Bronze and Early Iron Age ages; an example comes from a Sompting Type axe which is part of the hoard from Ferring, Sussex. Meldreth Type socketed axes are found singly (e.g. from the Thames, near Kew: BM: WG1750) and they are common in Late Bronze Age hoards and a mould for these axes was part of the hoard from Beeston Regis (Norwich Castle Museum: 1981.79). They are also known from the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age settlement at Traprain Law, East Lothian (Burgess and Schmidt 1981, Plate 83, no. 1231).
Dimensions: L 120.14mm; W 57.33mm (cutting edge); circular socket 35.31mm x 34.09mm
Weight: 288.89g


Socketed axehead /47\
Description: Early Iron Age socketed axe, probably of Type Sompting (Variant Tower Hill). Side-looped, single mouth moulding, straight body flaring to curved cutting edge, casting flashes prominent. Undecorated with a subrectangular mouth moulding; related in size and shape to an equally smallish Sompting Type axe recovered at the Early Iron Age pyre/feasting site at Llanmaes, Vale of Glamorgan. Other parallels come from the Falls of Snowdon (National Museum Wales 68.289/3) and Lochgair, Argyllshire (National Museums Scotland: NMS.X.DE135)
Dimensions: L 106.41mm; W 56.72mm (cutting edge); mouth 36.11mm x 36.63mm
Weight: 300g+


Socketed axehead /68\
Description: Late Bronze Age side-looped, single mouth moulding, prominent rib below mouth from which extends two pairs of conjoining ribs, body flares gently to splayed cutting edge, casting flashes prominent around loop. Very similar to a Late Bronze Age axe from one of the hoards found at Neutral Farm, Butley (Suffolk County Museum, Ipswich, 1949.54). The axe is faceted with ribs enhancing the edges of the facets.
Dimensions: L 83.29mm; W 50.14mm (cutting edge); mouth 34.61mm x 30.30mm
Weight: 152.03g


Socketed axehead /33\
Description: Late Bronze Age socketed axe with flat hexagonal cross-section, small with single loop on one face only, single mouth moulding, side faceted below mouth moulding, triangular body with straight cutting edge, damage at one corner, casting flashes prominent. The loop on one of the face may suggest that it was used as a pendant.
Dimensions: L 52.56mm; W 33.72mm (cutting edge); mouth 23.95mm x 20.74mm
Weight: 54.29g


Socketed axehead /34\
Description: Incomplete Late Bronze Age missing upper body and socketed end, body gently flares gently to splayed cutting edge, casting flashes not visible through concretion, blade not symmetrical. Possibly a faceted type.
Dimensions: L 75.62mm; W 53.67mm (cutting edge);
Weight: 136.68g


Socketed axehead /86\
Description: Small Late Bronze Age socketed axe, possibly an Armorican axe of Briard's Type Couville (Briard 1965). Side-looped, single mouth moulding, body flares gently to straight triangular cutting edge, casting flashes prominent on loop side only. The axe is similar to two single finds from Topcliffe and the Settle Area, both North Yorkshire (Schmidt and Burgess 1981, Plate 105, nos. 1653 and 1654).
Dimensions: L 78.72mm; W 30.11mm (cutting edge); mouth 22.77mm x25.90mm
Weight: 100.11g


Socketed axehead /36\
Description: Late Bronze Age socketed axe of South-Eastern Type or possibly Everthorpe (Schmidt and Burgess 1981, 218ff). Side-looped, single mouth moulding, prominent rib below mouth from which extends two ribs on one face (the other face is obscured by concretion), straight body, splayed cutting edge.
Dimensions: L 70.27mm; W 40.84mm (cutting edge); 33.82 x 29.87mm
Weight: 123.22g


Palstave axehead /30\
Description: LBA side-looped decorated with single mid-rib, prominent U-shaped stop ridge, blade flares below stop ridge to curved cutting edge. Transitional type. In state of corrosion.
Dimensions: L 161mm; W 43.84mm (cutting edge); hafting end L 74.61mm, W 35.40mm
Weight: 300g+


Palstave axehead /22\
Description: LBA side-looped, slightly prominent stop ridge, blade flares gently below stop ridge to slightly splayed cutting edge, smoothed down casting flashes on both sides. Late type.
Dimensions: L 144.25mm; W 47.27mm (cutting edge); hafting end L 66.07mm, W 29.85mm
Weight: 300g+


Palstave axehead /20\
Description: MBA side-looped, stop ridge extends into body, body flares to splayed cutting edge. In state of corrosion.
Dimensions: L 159mm; W 57.61mm (cutting edge); hafting end L 74.57mm, W 29.28mm
Weight: 300g+


Palstave axehead /62\
Description: MBA side-looped, low stop ridge not prominent, V-shaped decoration below stop ridge, central rib with hollows to either side, straight body flares into straight cutting edge, casting flashes visible. Cutting edge worn and recurved; corroding.
Dimensions: L 133.44mm; W 50.73mm (cutting edge); hafting end L 69.69mm, W 22.79mm
Weight: 291.41g


Palstave axehead /61\
Description: MBA side-looped but missing loop. At present covered with mud and part of ring /19\, blade flares to splayed cutting edge. Further information should be possible after conservation. Probably high-flanged south-western type.
Dimensions: L 160mm (circa); W 62.01mm (cutting edge)
Weight: 300g+

Palstave axehead /72\
Description: MBA side-looped, very small, straight body flaring to triangular cutting edge, prominent stop ridge.
Dimensions: L 96.45mm; W 34.86mm (cutting edge); hafting end L 49.05mm, W 18.93mm
Weight: 122.06g


Palstave axehead /21\
Description: MBA side-looped, fragment of body and cutting end, blade flares to a splayed cutting edge.
Dimensions: L 67.36mm; W 49.87mm (cutting edge)
Weight: 148.55g


Palstave axehead /16\
Description: MBA unlooped, prominent stop ridge, body has prominent mid rib, sides are concave flaring to splayed cutting edge; blade much worn. Breton type. Covered with mud.
Dimensions: L 132.67mm; W 42.48mm (cutting edge); hafting end L 61.59mm, W 31.74mm
Weight: 300g+


Flat axehead /59\
Description: Incomplete EBA missing butt end, body flares to a slightly splayed cutting edge.
Dimensions: L 64.47mm; W 56.71mm (cutting edge); T 80.06mm (broken end)
Weight: 165.08g



Gouges
Gouges sorted by width of cutting edge


Socketed gouge /31\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed gouge dating from the Late Bronze or possibly Early Iron Age. Damage to socket end, apparently plain mouth - no moulding, deep gouge furrow is 80.64mm long, body tapers a little below socket end and is straight sided, casting flashes have been smoothed down.
Dimensions: L 100.19mm; W 16.18mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 20.09mm x 19.61mm
Weight: 82.48g


Socketed gouge /101\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed gouge dating from the Late Bronze or possibly Early Iron Age. Double mouth moulding, medium depth gouge furrow is 63.84mm long, body narrows below mouth mouldings but flares at cutting edge, casting flashes are raised.
Dimensions: L 85.28mm; W 16.42mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 19.81mm x 20.41mm
Weight: 83.46g


Socketed gouge /40a\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed gouge dating from the Early Iron Age. Incomplete, comprising two pieces (one of which is fragmentary) and missing the socket end, deep gouge furrow but not possible to measure due to present condition of object, prominent casting flashes along the sides, body tapers from broken end. This gouge was probably cast with a high-tin content and has a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. A use as votive object may be preferred for this object.
Dimensions: L 62.10mm; W 15.67mm (cutting edge)
Weight: 29.09g


Socketed gouge /55\
Description: Cast copper alloy socketed gouge dating from the Early Iron Age. Complete but in two pieces broken transversely half way along the body, single mouth moulding only just discernable, prominent casting flashes, medium depth gouge furrow is 59.70mm long, body narrows gently from socket end. Corrosion active at cutting end. This gouge was probably cast with a high-tin content and has a very shiny silvery surface, probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 84.84mm; W 14.51mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 19.32mm x 19.61mm
Weight: 43.13g


Socketed gouge /42\
Description: Cast copper alloy socketed gouge dating from the Early Iron Age. Complete but with damage to socket end, single mouth moulding, shallow gouge furrow is 45.03mm long, prominent casting flashes, body narrows below mouth moulding to rather straight cutting edge. This gouge was possibly cast with a high-tin content. Originally, the surface would have been very shiny/silvery, which was probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 72.80mm; W 11.31mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 17.90mm x 18.97mm
Weight: 32.31g

Socketed gouge /40\
Description: Cast copper alloy socketed gouge dating from the Early Iron Age. Complete but with damage to socket end, moulded rib below socket end, crack on same face as furrow just below socket end, prominent casting flashes, shallow gouge furrow is 24.27mm long, body tapers towards rather straight cutting edge. This gouge was possibly cast with a high-tin content. Originally, the surface would have been very shiny/silvery, which was probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 43.65mm; W 10.18mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 16.36mm x 14.84mm
Weight: 16.72g


Socketed gouge /82\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed gouge dating from the Early Iron Age. Single mouth moulding, prominent casting flashes, shallow gouge furrow is 26.31mm long, body narrows towards rather straight cutting edge. Surface cracked above cutting edge. This gouge was cast with a high-tin content. Originally, the surface would have been very shiny/silvery, which was probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 44.98mm; W 10.57mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 15.04mm x 14.29mm
Weight: 17.51g

Socketed gouge /44\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed gouge dating from the Early Iron Age. Incomplete and missing part of face at socket end, single mouth moulding, prominent casting flashes, shallow gouge furrow is 30.35mm long, body narrows towards straight cutting edge. This gouge was possibly cast with a high-tin content. Originally, the surface would have been very shiny/silvery, which was probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 61.58mm; W 10.62mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 18.20mm
Weight: 19.13g


Socketed gouge /71\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed gouge probably dating from the Early Iron Age. Single mouth moulding, very prominent casting flashes, shallow gouge furrow is 36.29mm long, body tapers from socket end to slightly angled cutting edge. This gouge was possibly cast with a high-tin content. Originally, the surface would have been very shiny/silvery, which was probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 51.67 mm; W 9.87mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 18.54mm x 16.95mm
Weight: 24.99g


Socketed gouge /56\
Description: Single mouth moulding, prominent casting flashes, shallow gouge furrow is 29.77mm long, body gently tapers from socket end to curved cutting edge. Tiny hole below mouth moulding is probably a result of the casting process. This gouge was probably cast with a high-tin content. Originally, the surface would have been very shiny/silvery, which was probably due to an enrichment in eutectoid during casting by the so called tin-sweat phenomenon. The walls of the tools are very thin and brittle and it would not have been a useful tool. This object may have had a votive purpose.
Dimensions: L 59.46mm; W 9.49mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 16.07mm x 18.52mm
Weight: 22.75g


Socketed gouge /112\
Description: Single wide and flat mouth moulding, prominent casting flashes at the side, a third less-prominent casting flash at the reverse, shallow gouge furrow is 34.57mm long, body narrows to curved cutting edge, damage to reverse of cutting edge.
Dimensions: L 66.90mm; W 6.97mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 13.76mm x 13.57mm
Weight: 22.24g


Socketed gouge /32\
Description: Single mouth moulding narrows sharply to the body, body tapers to the straight cutting edge, deep gouge furrow 15.42mm long, raised casting flashes. Unusual furrow depth - possibly a hole caused by the casting process.
Dimensions: L 31.35mm; W 7.90mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 17.29mm x 17.78mm
Weight: 16.84g


Socketed gouge /45\
Description: Single mouth moulding with small area of damage, prominent casting flashes, body narrows below the mouth moulding to curved cutting edge, shallow gouge furrow 27.59mm long, body narrows to curved cutting edge.
Dimensions: L 52.03mm; W 7.24mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 14.27mm x 13.91mm
Weight: 19.40g

Socketed gouge /53\
Description: Single mouth moulding, prominent casting flashes, shallow gouge furrow 23.97mm long, body narrows below mouth moulding to straight cutting edge. Pale substance apparent in socket end.
Dimensions: L 51.94mm; W 7.17mm (cutting edge) ; circular socket end 13.59mm x 14.06mm
Weight: 16.20g

Socketed gouge /107\
Description: Fragmented small probable socketed gouge. Too fragile to record further.


Single Socketed Tools

Socketed punch /3\
Description: Probably incomplete and missing the tip, socket circular in section, the open end measures 27.76mm x 19.95mm. Two opposing holes are presumably peg holes, c.3mm in diameter, a quarter of the way along the socket. Socket tapers to 8.69 x 9.67mm. Body of the punch is square in cross section with apparently additional vertical grooves on each face. Body tapers from 6.33 x 6.88mm to the broken tip, 3.53 x 3.51mm. Object showing signs of corrosion. [Cf smaller examples from Great Orme's Head, Caernarvonshire (Savory Guide catalogue of the Bronze Age collections [National Museum of Wales], 1980, 127 no 307, fig 40, 4), associated with a palstave rather like no 22 from Wardour, and Flag Fen (Coombs in Pryor The Flag Fen Basin, 2001, 268 nos 93-4, 290, fig 10.6)]
Dimensions: Socket L 60.20mm; body L 70.53mm; total L 130.73mm
Weight: 43.46g


Socketed hammer /4\
Description: Most of the patina lost due to corrosion, casting flashes visible on one side (other side hidden beneath soil concretion), slightly concave sided (narrowest width is 19.22mm), in profile narrows from socket end to hammer end. Possible mouth moulding but too little patina survives.
Dimensions: L 51.39mm; Hammer end 22.88mm x 16.30mm; socket end 22.92mm x 19.80mm
Weight: 61.82g


Socketed mortising chisel /105\
Description: Complete with barely visible mouth moulding, socket sharply narrows below into the body which gently tapers in width to the pointed end, it tapers in thickness but to the bottom of the socket only, the thickness is consistent from here on. No casting flashes apparent. Parallels for this tool come from the Late Bronze Age hoards found at Minnis Bay, Kent and Carleton Rode, Norwich, Norfolk.
Dimensions: L 100.32mm; W 3.70mm x 7.20mm (point end) ; 20.35mm x 19.91mm (mouth)
Weight: 62.80g


Chisels
Chisels sorted by blade shape

Tanged Chisel /2\
Description: Incomplete with a broken tang, tang is rectangular in cross-section, expands to rib-like collar 3.48mm thick. Collar rectangular with rounded edges, blade below flares to curved cutting edge, blade below collar measures 9.91 x 6.22mm.
Dimensions: L 59.79mm; cutting edge 14.38mm; collar 12.41mm x 11.34mm;
Weight: 11.06g


Tanged Chisel /74\
Description: Complete but with damaged cutting edge, tang is rectangular in cross-section, expands to rib-like collar 3.45mm thick. Collar rectangular with rounded edges, blade below flares to probably curved cutting edge, blade below collar measures 9.94 x 5.39mm. Casting flashes visible at the sides.
Dimensions: L 99.99mm; cutting edge 20.06mm; collar 12.38 x 10.30;
Weight: 20.13g


Tanged Chisel /77\
Description: Complete but with damaged cutting edge, tang is rectangular in cross-section, tang slightly expands to lozenge-shaped section collar which narrows over c.17mm to 7.75 x 6.15mm, from here blade is asymmetrical and flares to straightish cutting edge with some damage, blade below collar measures 7.75 x 4.55mm.
Dimensions: L 140.28mm; cutting edge 35.41 mm, collar 12.25 x 12.22mm,
Weight: 42.14g


Tanged Chisel /43\
Description: Complete but with damaged cutting edge, tang is rectangular in cross-section, tang is straight sided possibly missing tip, thins towards collar where it widens to rib-like collar, W 3.02mm; below the blade flares with slightly concave sides to curved but damaged cutting edge, blade below collar measures 8.11 x 5.43mm. Active corrosion on cutting edge.
Dimensions: L 91.59mm; cutting edge 26.38mm, collar 9.25mm x 8.42mm,
Weight: 19.54g


Tanged Chisel /46\
Description: Incomplete and missing almost all the tang, remaining tiny stub of tang is oval in section (9.59 x 8.47mm). Collar also oval in section, sides of blade below are concave flaring to an expanded curved cutting edge. Blade below collar measures 12.69 x 12.75mm.
Dimensions: L 59.16mm; cutting edge 26.27 mm, collar 15.66 x 14.06mm
Weight: 34.14g


Tanged Chisel /111\
Description: Incomplete and missing a corner of the cutting edge, rectangular cross-sectioned tang pointed at one end, flares to the collar which is flat and not defined (perhaps better described as lugs). Below the blade has concave edges which flare to a wide and curved cutting edge, blade is asymmetrical. Blade below collar measures 8.42 x 6.63mm.
Dimensions: L 85.20mm; cutting edge 30.74 mm; collar 16.96 x 7.02 x 7.44 mm
Weight: 24.93g


Tanged Chisel /70\
Description: Incomplete and missing most of the tang, tang is rectangular in cross-section and flares to the rectangular collar, collar has rounded edges, blade below collar immediately concave then convex for the line of the blade, flared blade with slightly damaged curved cutting edge. Appears to have linear striations on both faces and on the tang. Blade below collar measures 11.62 x 6.41mm.
Dimensions: L 62.40mm; cutting edge 34.42mm; collar 15.15 x 10.83 x 4.10mm
Weight: 24.80g


Tanged Chisel /11\
Description: Complete with slight cutting edge damage, tang is rectangular in cross-section and flares to the rectangular collar, collar is rib-like with rounded edges, blade straight immediately below collar then expands into convex edges and further to a very wide cutting edge with slight curve. Patina smooth, shiny and dark green. Blade below collar measures 11.38 x 7.79mm.
Dimensions: L 109.10mm; cutting edge 46.63 mm; collar 14.12 x 10.82 x Th 3.53 mm
Weight: 42.22g


Tanged Chisel /87\
Description: Tang is rectangular in cross-section and flares to the oval collar, blade below has concave shoulders expanding into slightly flared sides, cutting edge below is curved and has a notch at the centre (probable damage). Blade below collar measures 9.51 x 6.05mm.
Dimensions: L 95.01mm; cutting edge 30.76mm; collar 10.88 x 7.61mm
Weight: 24.02g.



Sickles

Tanged Sickle /39\
Description: Two rivet holes, one of which is larger and counter sunk and 5.71mm diameter (closer to the end) and the other is filled with soil but smaller. Tang edges are flanged and c.5mm thick (inside the tang is c.3mm thick). There is a lentoid stop ridge 31.28 x 12.35mm beyond and on the other side the gently curved blade extends 26.41 x 5.47mm to the tip which is 4.50mm thick. The blade is decorated with 3 ribs between which are wide channels. The surface of the metal has a silvery coloured patina. The edges are chamfered.
Dimensions: L 116.07mm
Weight: 56.37g


Tanged Sickle /102\
Description: Two rivet holes c.4mm diameter - one of which is placed just off centre, the other diagonally placed towards one corner of the tang. Plain tang 3.48mm thick. It has an oval stop ridge measuring 29.31 x 12.60mm. The gentle curving plain blade below the stop ridge measures 26.66mm x 5.65mm and is plain. The blade edge is slightly bent.
Dimensions: L 103.48mm
Weight: 57.80g


Tanged Sickle /106\
Description: Two rivet holes, one of which retains a rivet c.7mm in diameter and 13.85mm in length. The blade sharply curves at almost a right angle, one face is plain while the other is decorated. The outside edge of the curve is thickened max 6.22mm, while the inside is 2.29mm thick. Flanking the thickened edge are two decorative ribs apparent towards the tang end only - the rest of the sickle is covered in mud, concretion and possible black organic substance. Tang is 19.20mm width and it extends directly into the blade.
Dimensions: L 123.75mm
Weight: 45.21g


Socketed Sickle /10\
Description: Cast copper-alloy socketed sickle dating from the Early Iron Age. Incomplete, missing the blade tip. Blade extends at right angles to the socket. Socket is 48.29mm long, the wider end is 25.98mm x 24.67mm, the shorter 14.51mm x 17.03mm, with a mouth moulding at the smaller end. There are also casting flashes visible. Blade extends from mouth moulding and is 31.30mm x 7.25mm, the blade gently curves to the old break which is 24.08 x 3.97mm. The blade is decorated on both faces with a central mid rib c.6mm wide. Parallels for this sickle come from Winterbourne Monkton, Wiltshire (single find, Devizes Museum D.M.1124), and Southacre, Norfolk (single find, Norwich Castle Museum 1908.22.34)) and, more importantly, from the two Early Iron Age hoard from Vale of Glamorgan, Cardiff II (Leckwith) and Llyn Fawr. A clay mould for these sickles has recently been excavated in Scotland.
Dimensions: L 105.95mm
Weight: 83.68g


Socketed Sickle /27\
Description: Cast copper alloy socketed sickle dating from the Late Bronze Age. Incomplete, consisting of the socket and part of the blade. The socket has two peg holes and tapers curving inwards on its outside edge from 23.71 x 21.65mm to 19.62 x 14.40mm at which point the socket extends vertically into the blade which curves from the curving edge. The blade measures 22.09 x 4.58mm and is lenticular in cross-section, being thicker at the outside edge. The socket end is fractured.
Dimensions: L 75.62mm
Weight: 75.24g


Sickle blade /52\
Description: Fragment, flat and curving in shape, one edge thicker (2.27mm) and one thinner (0.91mm).
Dimensions: L 57.01mm; W 25.82mm (max); T 2.27mm
Weighs: 14.75g



Knives (all double-edged)

Tanged knife /80\
Description: Tang contains two vertically arranged rivet holes (c.4mm in diameter), prominent central mid-rib below, triangular shoulder to one side and a triangular notch to the other. Below the blade measures 20.26 x 5.12mm narrowing to the point which is 3.75mm thick. The blade edge is damaged to one side. The butt end is 18.18mm wide and 2.10mm thick. Andrew Lawson thinks this may have been worked down from another blade (pers. comm.).
Dimensions: L 141.68mm
Weighs: 40.89g

Tanged knife /92\
Description: Tiny knife with single rivet hole (4.51mm diameter), the butt end measures 14.72 x 1.50mm. Shoulders measure 17.98x2.68mm wide, blade narrows from here to the point (1.78mm thick). The blade has a raised central rounded mid rib on both faces.
Dimensions: L 69.14mm
Weighs: 9.61g

Tanged knife /91\
Description: Incomplete, broken across the tang end. Tang remaining has flanges 3.14mm high. Shoulders measure 21.11mm x 5.22mm and narrow to a thickness of 2.66mm at the rounded tip. It is lenticular in cross-section with a broad central mid-rib.
Dimensions: L 115.53mm
Weighs: 40.35g

Tanged knife /50\
Description: Incomplete blade with active corrosion on both faces. Tang end measures 12.53 x 2.56mm. Width below inclusive of one prominent shoulder measures 18.34mm. Mid rib appears raised and rounded. The tip is missing. Blade lenticular in cross-section at break, measures 10.63 x 4.49mm. Object largely obscured by corrosion and mud.
Dimensions: L 79.90 mm
Weighs: 17.07g


Knife blade /66\
Description: Incomplete, probable knife blade. Active corrosion on one face, widens from 12.53 x 2.53mm to 18.43 x 4.77mm then narrows to rounded tip 3.18mm thick (with corrosion). It is lenticular in cross-section with a broad central mid-rib.
Dimensions: L 95.96mm
Weighs: 17.42g


Knife blade /48\
Description: Incomplete probable knife blade, heavily corroded (with active corrosion). Apparently lentoid in cross-section. Narrows slightly towards either end. Both ends missing.
Dimensions: L 89.36mm; W 19.78mm (max); T 3.53mm
Weighs: 22.97g

Ornaments

Sword chapes

Bag-shaped chape /94\
Description: Concave sides and a rounded bottom. The open end measures 22.05 x 11.02mm (internal 17.98 x 7.99mm). The rounded bottom measures 26.35 x 13.35mm. Both faces show a rivet hole below the open end c.3mm in diameter, and a c.2mm thick rib sits just above the rounded bottom.
Dimensions: L 25.65mm
Weight: 14.01g


Winged chape /26\
Description: Cast copper alloy winged chape dating from the Early Iron Age. Incomplete and now in three joining pieces, missing the tip of both wings, the tip of the base and the edge around the open end. It is V-shaped, closed around the outside edges and open along the inside edge where there is a pronounced curved lip at the inside notch of the V. A raised rib extends from each wing tip to the centre on both faces but is largely obscured by mud and concretion. The chape is filled with mud. The chape resembles two single finds, one from the Thames at Wandsworth and the other probably from the Thames, kept in the British Museum (BM: WG1779 and BM: 1875, 4-1, 36), but whilst their wings are almost horizontal, this winged chape shows a more V-shaped outline. Nevertheless, this winged chape fragment is probably related to Types Coplow and Wandsworth with their straight wings. There is a good parallel in Tombelle A, Cazevieille (Herault, France) (Inv. Arch. F7; Cowen 1967, fig. 13), although it probably has shorter wings and a shallower base (Brendan O'Connor, pers. comm.)
Dimensions: H 54.42mm; H 38.38mm (notch of the V to the point); W 91.98mm (max);
Weight: 40.03g



Pins

Swan's neck ring-headed pin /95\
Description: Cast copper alloy ring-headed pin dating from the Early Iron Age. Possibly missing it's very tip. No decoration apparent on shank but object still has mud adhering. Head resembles an 'S' in shape with top loop almost closing on itself. Where visible the patina is shiny and smooth. The pin is circular in cross section and thickest at the head being circa 3mm in diameter. The shank extends vertically to the side and bottom of the 'S' and narrows to 1.5mm diameter at the end. [Cf Flag Fen (Coombs in Pryor The Flag Fen Basin, 2001, 276 no 200, 293, fig 10.9)]
Dimensions: L 83.39mm
Weight: 4.10g


Swan's neck [sunflower] pin /58\
Description: Possibly a head fragment of a cast copper-alloy swan's neck [sunflower] pin consisting of the head and top of the shank only. Head is dished and undecorated, 33.25mm in diameter, shank below 4.42mm narrowing to 3mm at the old break. Shank bends just before break.
Dimensions: L 28.95mm
Weight: 11.81g


Conical-headed Pin /90\
Description: Rather squashed conical head in form, 6.10mm diameter and 3.59mm high, no apparent decoration. Shank below 3.05mm diameter cross-section, widens a little to 3.72mm at the centre then narrows to a point. The point is slightly bent.
Dimensions: L 129.28mm
Weight: 7.41g


Disc-headed Pin /15\
Description: Incomplete disc- or nail-headed pin, consists of head and upper shank only. Head very slightly dished and 19.42mm in diameter with no decoration apparent. Shank below 5.04mm, narrows to 3.46mm at the old break.
Dimensions: L 37.96mm
Weight: 5.68g


Pin /49\
Description: Fragment of probable pin, consisting of the pointed end of the shank. Patina where visible is smooth, shiny and green.
Dimensions: L 53.45mm, D 1.68mm (at the break)
Weight: 0.83g



Collar /76\
Description: Cast copper alloy curving fragment of segmented or knobbed bracelet or, more likely, collar of Hallstatt C type. It is complete in itself consisting of three joined hollow arcs, circa 6mm thick, individually `C' shaped in profile. From one end extends a pierced projection to fit with another piece of the bracelet, the piercing measures circa 2.5mm in diameter. At the other end is the hollow to take the pierced projection. It has a rivet hole on either side of the segment, 2.7mm diameter. The artefact would one of the 'hinge'-pieces that could be opened to slide the wrist/neck through the opening. The length of the artefact suggest that it was the hinge-piece for a bracelet, but the size of the 'knobs' suggests that it may have been part of one of the larger 'collars', the best example here being the collar from Clynnog (Caernarvonshire), Wales, which has a similar (though longer) hinged link with dowel attachment (National Museum Wales 41-109). [This may be the most important object in the Wardour hoard because no collar has been found in a hoard before (see Northover in Cunliffe Mount Batten, Plymouth, 1988, 61)]
Dimensions: L 57.22mm, W 18.84mm, H 14.38mm
Weight: 50.83g


Ring /19\
Description: Incomplete plain and curving tubular object, probably part of a ring and now in four pieces, the longest of which is embedded in soil with palstave /61\. This measures c.67mm long. The three remaining pieces measure 49.07mm, 40.68mm and 18.83mm. Originally joining all are hollow and measure c.5.73mm in diameter. The walls are 1.7mm thick.
Weight: 7.23g (three, with mud adhering)

Button /75\
Description: LBA button with some edge damage, conical in shape with central solid flat-topped boss, hollow to the reverse (0.57mm thick) with integral loop. A deep pointed oval channel runs through the loop. No decoration apparent.
Dimensions: D 27.40mm (27.40 x 26.24mm), H 8.55mm
Weight: 3.86g


Bar toggle /96\
Description: Cast copper-alloy toggle (or bugle-shaped fitting) dating from the Late Bronze or, in this case more likely, Early Iron Age, missing part of the loop. It has an elongated barrel shaped body circular in cross section, 4.84mm at the centre narrowing to circa 3.6mm at either end which then expands into a terminal circa 6mm in diameter. A very thin triangular loop circa 1.2mm in diameter in section projects at the centre of the object, 16.81mm long and broken at the apex. Compared to other bugle-shaped objects, however, this artefact is remarkably thin and light-weight. This could mean that this, too, is an object made for votive purposes rather than actual use (cf. Raftery in Archaeologia Atlantica 1, 1975, 83-9).
Dimensions: L 47.01mm
Weight: 5.53g


Strap fitting/strap end /63\
Description: Possibly a cast copper alloy cauldron clamp. All original patina missing on one face. Consists of two parallel bars, one of which is circular in section (4.6mm in diameter), the other of which is flat and hollow (measuring 9.20mm x 5.10mm, internal height 2.8mm). Joining the two bars is a 27.27mm x 3.33mm band narrowing to 22.61mm x 2.77mm before it curves downwards by 90 degrees to 18.27mm x 2.17mm where it joins the circular-section bar. The object strongly resembles a cauldron clamp, but further investigation and comparison with other clamps is needed to verify its actual use. A proper clamp would be expected to have two 'tubular' fittings, one on either side of the central bow/ridge. However, this object has a slim socket lined with very small rivet holes on one side and a staff-shaped terminal on the other. It may be better identified as a strap fitting. Further research is needed on this item to determine its original use.
Dimensions: L 63.50mm; W 26.41mm
Weight: 21.78g


Bracelet /85\
Description: Probably a bent, incomplete bracelet, lozenge-shaped in cross-section and slightly curving. Andrew Lawson has suggested it could be a torc strand (pers. comm.) or possibly a bracelet bent out of shape (Brendan O'Connor pers. comm.). It measures 6.05mm x 5.31mm at the centre.
Dimension: L 144.76mm
Weight: 27.90g



Razors

Tanged razor /97\

Description: Incomplete Early LBA leaf-shaped (probably) tanged or bifid razor with double edged blade, missing part of the tang, broken across rivet hole. Also has some edge damage and active corrosion. Tang is circa 14mm long, rivet hole 3.10mm diameter and the break measures 10.71mm x 1.64mm. Tang expands to 12.17mm x 2.38mm where it extends into the body. Shoulders measure 18.51mm wide and blade gently expands to 24.96mm before curving at the other end to a straight edge. At the centre it is 2.8mm thick at the edges it is c.0.6mm thick.
Dimensions: L 68.80mm
Weight: 18.24g


Hallstatt C Razor /41\
Description: Cast copper alloy single-edged Hallstatt razor dating from the Early Iron Age. Incomplete, missing one of its loops and with damaged edge. Slightly asymmetric. Surviving loop incomplete but measures 11.52mm diameter, it is flat in cross section measuring 2.63mm x 1.65mm. Curved edge to the side has a short rectangular projection at the centre, curve rises higher to the missing loop than intact loop. Blade is roughly trapezoidal with no original edges. Blade 1.79mm thick at the curved edge, thinning to 0.85mm near the damaged blade edge. The closest parallel for this razor is probably the razor found at the Early Iron Age hillfort settlement at Traprain Law, East Lothian, Scotland, which is part of Jockenhövel's group of Einschneidige Rasiermesser mit seitlichem Griff' (single-edged razors with side handle) (Jockenhövel 1980, no. 776; Tafel 40, 776).
Dimensions: L 58.04mm; H circa 29mm (blade)
Weight: 13.56g

Miscellaneous

Unidentified objects (possible dagger hilt fragments)


Unidentified object /69\
Description: Incomplete and socketed, originally 'Y shaped but now missing one of the arms (old break). At the base of the Y there is an oval shaped mouth 17.43mm x 15.36mm, decorated to the outside with seven concentric raised ribs. The mouth narrows to 11.22mm x 10.09mm and a collar with double-ribbed moulding. From here the socket extends lentoid in cross section and expands to 11.24mm x 6.76mm. The mid-rib is slightly raised. To one side is the surviving arm, triangular in cross-section and measuring 9.1mm x 5.15mm. It thins to 3.27mm where it ends in a flattened globular terminal, 15.05mm x 11.23mm. At the break three transverse grooves are visible on the surviving arm. Two holes on the socket are probably as a result of the casting process. Possibly a hilt fragment of a Continental Hallstatt D2/3 antenna-hilted dagger (Ben Roberts / Dot Boughton, pers. comm.). It is similar (though more angular) to an anthropoid dagger or sword with iron blade and bronze hilt, pictured in the British Museum Guide 1953, 58 (fig. 22, 4). This is classified as a sword by Stead (British Iron Age swords and scabbards, 2006, 197 no 216, fig 105, cf also North Grimston, no 215) and it would certainly be worth comparing more closely, though the swords have a complete X-shaped hilt apparently more solid that the Wardour piece.
Dimension: L 57.09mm
Weight: 31.16g


Unidentified object /93\
Description: Incomplete, with a dished area at one end 18.43mm in diameter, 5mm in height, hollow to the underside (0.70mm thick) and a short projecting point at the centre. To the other side is a circular sectioned shank 4.08mm in diameter which appears to bifurcate into two broken arms c.4mm in diameter. At this point is a large amount of concretion and possible iron staining which makes further identification difficult. This is possibly another antenna dagger hilt (Dot Boughton, pers. comm.) with the iron staining being connected to the now missing iron dagger tang (?).
Weight: 7.23g


Fragments

Fragment /115\
Description: Fragment of possible blade edge, triangular in cross-section.
Dimensions: L. 19.29mm; W 3.40mm T 2.76mm
Weight: 0.22g

Fragment /79\
Description: Very small fragment of probable corrosion.
Weight: 0.02g

Fragments /28\
Description: 7 fragments of a socketed object, probably circular in cross section.
Weight: 6.75g

Notes:

Discussion

The Wardour hoard was initially discovered whilst out metal detecting on cultivated land, but subsequently retrieved under controlled archaeological excavation. The hoard contains c.114 bronze weapons, tools and ornaments dating from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age and was probably buried in or towards the end of the 6th century BC. The object range of the hoard's contents is as follows: rapiers (2), swords (7), spearheads (29), socketed axes (9), palstaves (8), flat axe (1), socketed gouges (15), other wood-working tools (12), sickles (6), knives (6), chapes (2), dress pins (5), bracelet/collar (1), ring (1), button (1), toggle (1), strap fitting/end (1), razors (2), unidentified object (6). The percentages of the different artefact types are similar although wood-working tools such as axes, gouges, chisels, awls and punches clearly outweigh the other classes of weapons and ornaments.

The composition and size of the Wardour hoard strongly resembles the two hoards from Batheaston and Netherhampton (both Wiltshire) neither of which was recovered during controlled archaeological excavation. As it was excavated by professional archaeologists, the Wardour hoard is thus the first large multi-period hoard that can be researched and studied as a single entity. A smaller multi-period hoard (probably deposited at a similar time during the Earliest Iron Age) is known from the Iron Age hillfort settlement of Danebury, Hampshire (Cunliffe and O'Connor 1979, 235-7). They were deposited between c. 800-600BC.

While the rapier, sword and spearhead fragments clearly date from the Middle and Late Bronze Age, there are a number of artefacts dating from the Late Bronze-Early Iron Age transition and the Early Iron Age which merit a closer look and will help set the terminus ante quem for this hoard. The youngest artefacts in this hoard are likely to be the two unidentified objects if, indeed, they turn out to be dagger hilt fragments, /69\ and /93\. The thinner, more fragile-looking object (/93\) finds an almost exact parallel in the hoard from Netherhampton (1998.0901.202/Britih Museum database no, 509), where it has been catalogued as 'copper-alloy multi-armed ornament with one disc-ended arm'. Both objects have a central bar terminating in a small more or less concave disc at the top and two arms curving outwards from the bottoms. The two arms are broken but probably went on to curve all the way around, their ends possibly touching the rim of the central disc. Generally speaking, they resemble the hilt terminals/pommels of Continental Early Iron Age (Hallstatt D) antenna-hilted daggers. This dagger type, represented at the eponymous Hallstatt cemetery in graves 13/1939 (Kromer 1959, Tafel 210, 9), 11/1889 (ibid, Tafel 205, 5a), 32/1939 (ibid, Tafel 205, 2a) and 702/1 (ibid, Tafel 143) is a typical find in Continental Early Iron Age contexts but rare in Britain. It looks very different from object /93\, but there is a possibility that this, too, is the fragment of a contemporary antenna-hilted dagger, albeit probably of a different type. The British Museum Catalogue of 1953 shows an anthropoid dagger with an iron blade and bronze hilt which shows similar characteristics (BM Catalogue 1953, 58, fig. 22, 4), although the V-shaped arms or 'guard' of this dagger's hilt are wider apart and not as narrow. However, this identification is only a suggestion. The artefacts are certainly contemporary with (or slightly later than) the other Early Iron Age objects in the hoard, but further study is certainly needed to confirm or correct this identification.

Another artefact type which is very typical of Continental Early Iron Age Hallstatt C and D contexts are knobbed bracelets. On the Continent, they frequently occur in grave assemblages, both larger and smaller varieties with differently-sized knops and bosses. In Britain, however, knobbed bracelets are generally rare. Looking at the Wardour hoard's fragment's hinged link and dowel attachment, the best parallel may be the well-known 'Clynnog collar' from Hendre Back, Clynnog, Caernarvonshire (National Museum Wales: 41.109; Hemp 1931, 354-5; O'Connor 1980, 598). It is a much larger object, but it has a very similar opening/closing and securing mechanism which is otherwise unparalleled amongst the small corpus of knobbed/bossed ornaments of the British Isles. Most of the bracelets and neckrings of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age have an opening to facilitate wear, but most bracelets are solid without opening. It has been argued that the Clynnog collar should be dated to the later Iron Age La Tène phase rather than the Hallstatt period, because of its advanced hinge-mechanism and fine craftsmanship (Savory 1976, 26; O'Connor 1980, 259), but the similarity between the knobbed/bossed bracelets of the Hallstatt period is striking. O'Connor suggested that since the collection of knobbed bracelets from Mountbatten (Plymouth, Devon) should be dated to the Early Iron Age, so should be the Clynnog collar, as the bracelets would provide a valid British parallel for it (ibid., 259). However, somewhat more complicated hinge-mechanisms as seen in the Clynnog collar and the fragment from Wardour, are more common in the Early La Tène and British examples come from the Iron Age cemetery of Wetwang Slack on the Yorkshire Wolds (Dent 1982, 444-6, fig. 6). Thus, the most likely date for Wardour's knobbed bracelet or collar fragment would be similar to that of the fragment /69\, late Hallstatt D, since it displays the advanced hinge-mechanism of the La Tène period while still retaining the bossed ornament of the Hallstatt period.

While the small bag-shaped chape /94\ is a Late Bronze Age Atlantic type, the winged chape /26\ is another Early Iron Age Hallstatt type that derived from the earlier bag-shaped chapes. Winged chapes occur both in Britain and on the Continent and date from Hallstatt C which makes them older than the dagger and knobbed bracelet/collar fragments discussed above. The winged chape resembles the chapes from the Thames at Wandsworth (British Museum: BM WG 1779) and another, probably from the Thames (British Museum: BM 1875, 4-1, 36), but it has a more V-shaped and less rounded bottom. A very good parallel comes from Tombelle A, Cazevieille (Herault, France) (Inv. Arch. F7; Cowen 1967, fig. 13). Gerloff (after Rieth 1942) suggests that chapes such as this, with straight wings can be assigned to the earliest Iron Age Hallstatt C0 or Hallstatt C1a (Gerloff 2004, 146, fig. 17.9 (no. 10)).

An insular type is object /10\, the larger of the two socketed sickle fragments. While the other, /27\, dates from the Late Bronze Age, sickle /10\ is related to the socketed, heeled sickles of the British Early Iron Age. Heeled sickles are known from Early Iron Age hoards, such as Cardiff II and Llyn Fawr (Vale of Glamorgan, Wales), but also as single finds (e.g. Icklingham, Suffolk (British Museum: BM 1904, 10-21, 1) and Southacre, Norfolk (Norwich Castle Museum: NCM 1908.22.34). The three most similar parallels, however, are sickles with conical sockets and come from the Oxford region (Ashmolean Museum: 1993.134), Dores (nr. Inverness: National Museums Scotland: NMS.X.DO29) and Winterbourne Monkton (Wiltshire: Devizes Museum: D.M.1124). The socketed sickle from Winterbourne Monkton is probably the closest parallel stylistically and geographically, even though it has a small loop at the back of the socket and it lacks the Wardour sickle's midrib on the curved blade. According to Fox, non-heeled socketed sickles with conical sockets such as fragment /10\, slightly predate heeled socketed sickles (Fox 1939, 223) and it may be suggested here that /10\ dates from the Late Bronze Age-Early Iron Age transition period rather than to the Early Iron Age proper.

Conclusion

The Wardour hoard comprises 114 objects which date from the Middle (Early?) Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age (Hallstatt D). This means that, remarkably, the object range of this hoard stretches over 1000 years. This is highly unusual yet not unheard of, as the discovery of the hoards from Danebury, Batheaston and Netherhampton (Wiltshire) in the 1990s suggest. While the Batheaston and Netherhampton Hoards were probably buried slightly later than the Wardour Hoard, the object range and types are similar. The major differences lie in the hoards' sizes (Netherhampton contains at least 535 objects, Batheaston c. 301 objects, Wardour c. 114 objects and Danebury only 12 objects) and the fact that Netherhampton contains a higher percentage of axes (192), while in Wardour spearheads somewhat outweigh the presence of the other artefact types. The Batheaston hoard, on the other hand, showed a tendency towards personal ornaments such as pins and brooches (182 out of 301 objects). However, even though they are very similar in composition, the hoards from Netherhampton and Batheaston also contained Later Iron Age brooches, small votive cauldrons and small ornamental or votive shields which suggest a deposition in the 2nd century BC. The youngest objects of the Wardour hoard date the hoard to the Early Iron Age, i.e. 8th-6th centuries BC.

Thus, in light of these parallels, the Wardour hoard qualifies as Treasure under the Amendment to the Treasure Act of 1996 (Category 2) which stipulates that any group of two or more metallic objects of any composition of any prehistoric date that come from the same find and found after 1 January 2003, qualify as Treasure under the Treasure Act.

Dot Boughton MPhil MSt; FLO (Lancashire and Cumbria)

Katie Hinds MA; FLO (Wiltshire)

Jane Ellis Schön MA; Curator of Archaeology and Collections Manager, Salisbury Museum

With comments from Dr Ben Roberts, Dr Brendan O'Connor and Andrew White

Bibliography:

Briard, J. 1965. Les dépôts Bretons et l'age du Bronze Atlantique. Rennes.

Cowen, J.D. 1967. 'The Hallstatt Sword of Bronze: on the Continent and in Britain'. P.P.S. XXXIII, 377-453.

Cunliffe, B. 1988. Mount Batten, Plymouth - a Prehistoric and Roman port. Oxford.

Dent, J.S. 1982. 'Cemeteries and Settlement Patterns of the Iron Age on the Yorkshire Wolds'. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 48, 437-457.

Fox, C. 1939. 'The Socketed Bronze sickles of the British Isles'. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society New Series 5, 222-248.

Hemp, W.J. 1931. 'The Clynnog Collar and the Carnguwch Cairn'. Archaeologia Cambrensis LXXXVI, 354-355.

Gerloff, S. 2004. 'Hallstatt Fascination: 'Hallstatt' buckets, swords and chapes from Britain and Ireland'. In: Roche, H, Eogan, G., Bradley, J., Coles, J. and Raftery, B. (eds.) 2004. From Megalith to Metals. Essays in honour of G. Eogan. Oxford, 124-154.

Jockenhövel, A. 1980. Die Rasiermesser in Westeuropa. Prähistorische Bronzefunde VIII, 3. München: C.H. Beck.

Joffroy, R. et al. 1954. Inventaria Archaeologia France, Ages du Metaux, Fasc.1, F1-F6. Anvers.

Kromer, K. 1959. Das Gräberfeld von Hallstatt. Firenze.

Northover, P. 1988. 'The Late Bronze Age metalwork: General discussion'. In: Cunliffe, B. et al. 1988. Mountbatten, Plymouth, 75-85.

Pryor, F. 2001. The Flag Fen Basin: Archaeology and Environment of a Fenland Landscape. Archaeological Reports, London: English Heritage.

Raftery, B. 1975. 'A Late Bronze Age bar toggle from Ireland'. Archaeologica Atlantica 1(1) 83-90.

Rieth, A. 1942. Die Eisentechnik der Hallstattzeit. Leipzig.

Savory, H.N. 1976. Guide Catalogue of the Early Iron Age Collection (National Museum of Wales). Cardiff.

Savory, H.N. 1980. Guide Catalogue of the Bronze Age Collection (National Museum of Wales). Cardiff.

TVC Valuation 15/11/2012: £4155

Subsequent actions

Current location of find: Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum
Subsequent action after recording: Acquired by museum after being declared Treasure

Treasure details

Treasure case tracking number: 2011T684

Chronology

Broad period: BRONZE AGE
Subperiod from: Late
Period from: BRONZE AGE [scope notes | view all attributed records]
Subperiod to: Early
Period to: IRON AGE [scope notes | view all attributed records]
Date from: Circa 800 BC
Date to: Circa 600 BC

Dimensions and weight

Quantity: 114

Discovery dates

Date(s) of discovery: Monday 19th September 2011 - Thursday 13th October 2011

Personal details

Found by: This information is restricted for your login.
Recorded by: Ms Katie Hinds - [ view all attributed records]
Identified by: Ms Katie Hinds - [view all attributed records]
Secondary identifier: Mrs Dot Boughton - [ view all attributed records]

Other reference numbers

Treasure case number: 2011T684

Materials and construction

Primary material: Copper alloy [scope notes | view all attributed records]
Completeness: Uncertain [scope notes | view all attributed records]

A resized image of Copper-alloy Socketed spear - the first item found in the hoard

Image use policy

You can use our images unless stated otherwise under a CC BY-SA licence.

Spatial metadata

Region: South West
County: Wiltshire
District: Wiltshire
To be known as: Wardour

Spatial coordinates

Grid reference source: GPS (From FLO)
Unmasked grid reference accurate to a 1 metre square.

Discovery metadata

Method of discovery: Controlled archaeological investigation [scope notes]
General landuse: Cultivated land[scope notes]

References cited

No references cited so far.

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Created: Wednesday 19th October 2011
Updated: Friday 17th January 2014

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